HUMAN ANATOMY, ANTROPOMETRY, POSTURAL ASSESSMENT
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide students with basic knowledge of the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and motor control systems, focalised to its application in physical activities and sports in the different age groups. The course is also designed to give the student the knowledge of the fundamental anthropometry and body posture.
Course contents summary
Classification of bones, joints and muscles.
Axial and Appendicular components of the skeletal system:
Bones of the skull, Temporo-mandibular joint, muscles of the head and neck and their innervation.
Spine; Anatomy of vertebrae, intervertebral Joints; muscles of the spine, thoracic cage; Ribs and costal cartilages; Sternum; costo-vertebral Joints; respiratory muscles.
Pectoral Girdle: Clavicle; Scapula; sterno-clavicular articulation; shoulder girdle muscles and their innervation.
Upper limb: homerous; joints of the shoulder; muscles that move the arm; radio and ulna; bones of the hand; elbow joints; Wrist and hand joints and the muscles that move the forearm and the hand. The brachial plexus and its nerves.
Pelvis: hip; Joints of the pelvis; muscles of the pelvic floor.
Leg: Femur; coxo-femoral joint; thigh muscles; Tibia and fibula; The knee; foot Bones; Leg muscles, muscles of the foot; The lumbo-sacral plexus and its nerves.
Applications of diagnostic imaging to the muscolo-skeletal system.
The Central and Peripheral Nervous System: spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum; diencephalon; telencephalon. The sensitive and motor pathways. Neuromuscular spindles. Propioception. The anatomical basis of reflexes.
Anthropometry: Anthropometry applied to physical activities and sports: Anthropometric measures and BMI in adults and in children, reference values, the body composition (fat mass and fat free mass); anthropometric techniques.
Posture: The biomechanics. Applications, limitations, definition of physical quantities.
Vectors and decomposition of forces applied to the motion, muscle strength and resistance.
The skeletal muscle levers.
Genres, angle of muscle insertion, coattant and displacement component, moment of force and moment of resistance.
Muscle machines, characteristics and peculiarities, the meaning of the cams.
The biomechanical model of muscle. Contractile unit (sarcomere), the concept of motor unit, muscle shortening velocity, strength, flexibility, muscle spindles, muscle tone and its applications.
Theory of muscles, one, two and polyarticular muscles, the role of muscle fixation, external load and internal load.
Mode of muscle contraction: isotonic, , isokinetic, isometric, concentric and eccentric movement.
Multifactorial aspect of the force.
Coordination skills and conditional (definition) and their mutual interaction.
Plans and the cardinal axes and segmental. Methodological definition of flexion, extension, bending and stretching.
General adaptation syndrome (GAS), adaptations and modifications.
Overload principle, quantification of the year according to the method 1RM and second derivative methods.
Relationship between oxygen consumption and heart rate, anaerobic threshold.
Behavioral aspects of human movement, attitude, posture.
Balance, economy and comfort: postural meaning.
Diaphragmatic mechanics, ventilation, physiological and anatomical dead space.
Ventilation during exercise: the principle of mobility and protection.
Articular physiology *
Analytical study of the physiology of the spine and joint applications on physical exercise.
Trattato di Anatomia Umana, Apparato Locomotore (Anastasi et al.) Ed. Edi-Ermes; Valutazione antropometrica in clinica, riabilitazione e sport (Cagnazzo F. e Cagnazzo R.) Ed. Edi-Ermes; Appunti dalle Lezioni
* “Fisiologia articolare” volume 3 - I. A. Kapandji
Weinek: "L'allenamento ottimale"
Parodi, Martinelli: "Il back pain di origine meccanica", Editrice Veneta
McArdle, Katch, Katch: “Fisiologia applicata allo sport”
ORAL LESSON AND LABORATORY
Assessment methods and criteria