Learning outcomes of the course unit
The Course aims to introduce the student to the comprehension, in molecular terms, of the main metabolic pathways and to understand at molecular level, the control systems that regulate cellular and tissue functions. Particular attention will be devoted to connective, bone and tooth tissues,
Basic Chemistry and introductory biochemistry
Course contents summary
In the first part of the course we will assess the level of knowledge of the concepts that constitute the prerequisites.
In the second part we will explore the knowledge on the structure and function of proteins, complex polysaccharides and complex lipids.
In Part III we will discuss: a) some of the main metabolic processes responsible for the production of energy needed to keep the cell alive.
b) Calcium metabolism.
- Insights introductory biochemistry
Complex carbohydrates: Glycoproteins and glycolipids
Complex lipids: Eicosanoids
Proteins: Composition and structure.
Protein of connective tissue, plasma and conjugated proteins of biomedical interest. Hemoglobin and oxygen transport.
Enzymes and enzyme kinetics. Coenzymes used in metabolic reactions.
Vitamins: biochemical action.
- Bioenergetics and biological oxidation. Krebs cycle. Oxidative phosphorylation.
- The glycolysis and the oxidation of pyruvate. Shunt of pentoses.
- Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.
- Lipolysis, lipogenesis and hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism.
- Metabolism of glycogen.
- Gluconeogenesis; homeostasis of blood glucose.
- Cellular signaling. Surface receptors and intracellular receptors. Molecular mechanisms of receptor signaling through ion channel, G protein-coupled receptor, receptor tyrosine kinase, intracellular receptors that act as transcription factors.
-Biochemistry of the endocrine system: structure, function, biosynthesis and factors that regulate the release of: insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, cortisol.
-The role of hormones in the regulation of metabolism.
-Fat-soluble vitamins: structure, functions, and nutrition. Role of retinol in the perception of light stimuli, and the role of vitamin D in the regulation of serum calcium and in the formation of bone matrix, and the role of vitamin K in the process of hemostasis.
- Protein and biochemical pathways important in the process of blood clotting. proteins involved in the mechanism of inhibition of coagulation and in the dissolution of fibrin.
- Biochemistry bone and tooth structure. Structure and composition of bone, dentine and enamel. Processes of mineralization and bone resorption.
- Growth factors and hormones that act on bone cells.
- Metabolism of calcium and phosphate. Hormonal regulation of serum calcium.
D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox
Introduzione alla biochimica di Lehninger
Assessment methods and criteria