# ELECTRONICS 2

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

Knowledge:

-basic knowledge of analog electronic circuits with MOS and bipolar transistors (signal and power amplifiers)

-Opamp: specifications and applications.

Skills:

-understanding and analysing the schematic of a simple amplifier

-designing and sizing simple analog circuits (single-transistor or with opamp)

-simulating an analog circuit

## Prerequisites

1. Linear circuits theory

1.1 Analysis methods (kirchoff, nodal analysis, etc.)

1.2 Linear circuits with sine-wave stimuli

1.3 Laplace transform: application to linear circuits with reactive components.

2. Bode diagram

3. Basics of electronic devices: diode, BJT, MOS transistor

## Course contents summary

1 Introduction

1.1 Analog and digital signals

1.2 Linear and non-linear systems, distortion.

1.3 The concept of linearisation of electronic circuits

1.4 Small-signal equivalent circuit of: p-n diode, BJT and MOS transitor.

1.5 Linear amplifier: models and definitions of input and output impedance, amplification, transconductance and transresistance.

2 Amplifiers

2.1 Common Emitter (CE)

2.1.1 Large signal and small signal analysis; derivation of network function.

2.1.2 Biasing techniques and circuits

2.1.2.1 with a battery, with a resistance and a coupling capacitor, with an additional emitter resistance.

2.1.2.2 Stabilization factors (against beta and Vbe)

2.2 common-collector and common-base stages (CC and CB)

2.3 single-transistor MOS amplifiers: common-source, common-gate and common-drain.

2.4 Multi-stage amplifiers

2.4.1 block diagram

2.4.2 CC+CE, CE+CC, cascode, Darlington

2.5 BJT differential amplifier

3 Current mirrors and amplifiers with active load

3.1 simple BJT mirror, enhanced BJT mirror, simple MOS mirror

3.2 Advanced mirror architectures (basics): widlar, wilson, cascode

3.3 CS and CE active load amplifiers

3.4 differential amplifiers with active load.

4 High-frequency behaviour of amplifiers

4.1 Frequency response of CE amplifier

4.2 Dominant-pole approximation and time-constants based analysis method

5 Circuits with feedback

5.1 Block diagram, negative and positive feedback, reduction of sensitivity to amplifier parameter, gain-bandwidth product.

5.2 Stability of circuits with feedback

5.3 matrix-based analysis of feedback circuits

6 Operational Amplifier

6.1 Definition and characteristics

6.2 The concept of input short-circuit

6.3 Applications

6.3.1 Inverting and non-inverting amplifier, summing amplifier, follower.

6.3.2 Opamp-based differential amplifiers: one and three-opamps architectures.

6.3.3 Integration and derivative.

6.3.4 Non-linear circuits: rectifiers, peak-detectors and log-amplifiers

6.3.5 Negative Impedance Converter

6.4 Real Opamp non-idealities

6.4.1 finite gain, input and output resistance.

6.4.2 Offset voltage and input bias currents

6.4.3 PSRR and CMRR

6.4.4 Slew-rate limiting

6.4.5 Effects of opamp non-idealities

6.5 Opamp: what's inside, miller compensation

7 Large signal amplifiers

7.1 Delivered useful power and efficiency

7.2 Non-linear distortion

7.3 Class-A output stages.

7.4 Stress of output devices

7.4.1 Overheating, thermal transmission in electronic devices.

7.4.2 Safe operating region

7.5 Class of a power amplifier: A,B,C,D

7.6 High-efficiency amplifiers

7.6.1 B ed AB

7.6.2 C e D (basics)

8 Stability of a circuit in bias point

8.1 Laplace domain analysis and importance of poles

8.2 Natural frequency of a circuits

8.3 Instability: oscillation start-up

8.4 Autonomous circuits

9 Simulation of analog circuits

## Course contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Analog and digital signals

1.2 Linear and non-linear systems, distortion.

1.3 The concept of linearisation of electronic circuits

1.4 Small-signal equivalent circuit of: p-n diode, BJT and MOS transitor.

1.5 Linear amplifier: models and definitions of input and output impedance, amplification, transconductance and transresistance.

2 Amplifiers

2.1 Common Emitter (CE)

2.1.1 Large signal and small signal analysis; derivation of network function.

2.1.2 Biasing techniques and circuits

2.1.2.1 with a battery, with a resistance and a coupling capacitor, with an additional emitter resistance.

2.1.2.2 Stabilization factors (against beta and Vbe)

2.2 common-collector and common-base stages (CC and CB)

2.3 single-transistor MOS amplifiers: common-source, common-gate and common-drain.

2.4 Multi-stage amplifiers

2.4.1 block diagram

2.4.2 CC+CE, CE+CC, cascode, Darlington

2.5 BJT differential amplifier

3 Current mirrors and amplifiers with active load

3.1 simple BJT mirror, enhanced BJT mirror, simple MOS mirror

3.2 Advanced mirror architectures (basics): widlar, wilson, cascode

3.3 CS and CE active load amplifiers

3.4 differential amplifiers with active load.

4 High-frequency behaviour of amplifiers

4.1 Frequency response of CE amplifier

4.2 Dominant-pole approximation and time-constants based analysis method

5 Circuits with feedback

5.1 Block diagram, negative and positive feedback, reduction of sensitivity to amplifier parameter, gain-bandwidth product.

5.2 Stability of circuits with feedback

5.3 matrix-based analysis of feedback circuits

6 Operational Amplifier

6.1 Definition and characteristics

6.2 The concept of input short-circuit

6.3 Applications

6.3.1 Inverting and non-inverting amplifier, summing amplifier, follower.

6.3.2 Opamp-based differential amplifiers: one and three-opamps architectures.

6.3.3 Integration and derivative.

6.3.4 Non-linear circuits: rectifiers, peak-detectors and log-amplifiers

6.3.5 Negative Impedance Converter

6.4 Real Opamp non-idealities

6.4.1 finite gain, input and output resistance.

6.4.2 Offset voltage and input bias currents

6.4.3 PSRR and CMRR

6.4.4 Slew-rate limiting

6.4.5 Effects of opamp non-idealities

6.5 Opamp: what's inside, miller compensation

7 Large signal amplifiers

7.1 Delivered useful power and efficiency

7.2 Non-linear distortion

7.3 Class-A output stages.

7.4 Stress of output devices

7.4.1 Overheating, thermal transmission in electronic devices.

7.4.2 Safe operating region

7.5 Class of a power amplifier: A,B,C,D

7.6 High-efficiency amplifiers

7.6.1 B ed AB

7.6.2 C e D (basics)

8 Stability of a circuit in bias point

8.1 Laplace domain analysis and importance of poles

8.2 Natural frequency of a circuits

8.3 Instability: oscillation start-up

8.4 Autonomous circuits

9 Simulation of analog circuits

## Recommended readings

P. R. Gray, P.J. Hurst, S.H. Lewis, R. G. Meyer, “Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits”, 5th Edition, Wiley.

C. Morandi, “Elettronica C”, disponibile su Lea

R. Menozzi, “Appunti di Elettronica”, Pitagora.

S. Franco, “Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits” McGraw-Hill

J. Milmann and C.C. Halkias, “Electronics devices and circuits”, McGraw-Hill, chapter 9

## Teaching methods

Lectures.

Exercises are solved in the classroom and deal with the analysis and design of simple analogue circuits.

## Assessment methods and criteria

Final written test and oral exam

A positive result in the written test is mandatory to access to the oral exam.

Books or manuscripts cannot be used during the written test.

If a positive result is achieved in the written test, oral exam must be taken within the same session

If the oral exam is not passed, the student must repeat the written test.

The final mark is the weighted average of the marks achieved in the oral exam and written test.

To access to the written test, subscription at the dedicated www pages (at www.unipr.it) is mandatory.

## Other informations

Web pages of the course with

-teaching materials (slides and manuscripts)

-example of written tests

at lea.unipr.it

Students are asked to subscribe to the mailing list of the course