SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF MATERIALS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course deals with the applications of the fundamentals of Chemistry in the use of civil engineering materials. It presents a variety of building materials, in particular cements and concretes, metallic and polymeric materials, and correlate their chemicophysical nature with their mechanical, and processing properties for explaining their behaviour in service.
General and Inorganic Chemistry, fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
Course contents summary
Crystalline and amorphous materials. Engineering materials: metals, ceramic materials, polymeric and composite materials. Mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of materials and tests for their characterization.
-Connection between microstructure and properties. Principal metallic crystal structures. Metallic solid solutions. Crystal lattice defects.
-Heterogeneous equilibria. Binary phase diagrams.
-Burnt and hydrated lime; plaster of paris. Hydraulic lime. Portland cement. Manufacture, hydration processes of Portland cement. Natural and man-made pozzolana, fly ash, silica fume; blast furnace slag. Portland-pozzolana cement, slag cement. Types of Portland cement. Technical tests on cement. Aluminate cement.
-Fine and coarse aggregates. Cement mortar and concrete: properties and tests (time of setting, consistency or workability, bleeding). Admixture for concrete. Lightweight and heavy concretes. Fiber reinforced concretes and polymer impregnated concretes. Shrinkage, creep, compressive strength of concrete. Mix-design of concrete. Hygrothermic treatment of concrete. Concrete degradation.
-Ceramic materials for buildings (bricks, gres, porcelain).
-Engineering plastics. Polymerization reactions for thermoplastics. Thermosetting plastics: chemistry and properties. Polyethylenes, polypropylenes, polyvinylchloride, polymethylmethacrylate, acrylonitrile, polystyrene, polyesters, phenol-formaldehyde resins, epoxy resins, polyamides, polyurethanes, silicones, elastomers. Properties, manifacture and applications in modern buildings. Degradation mechanism.
-Composite materials: properties and applications in civil engineering.
-Metallic materials. Cast irons and steels: production and properties. The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. White, grey, malleable and nodular cast irons Heat treatment of steels (hardening, softening, annealing, normalizing). Standard classification and codification of steels. Alloying elements in steel, stainless steels, steels for tool.
-Electrochemical corrosion of metals. Galvanic cells. Intergranular corrosion. Stress corrosion. Corrosion control and prevention.
Introduction. Introduction to the materials under study and the need to evaluate its properties. Properties of metallic materials, polymers, ceramics in relation to the structure and types of bond. Outline of the composite materials. Ionic and covalent bonds. Metallic bond. Secondary bonds. Properties of materials in the light of the nature of the links. Structure of metals. Space lattice and unit cells. Crystal systems and Bravais lattices. Hexagonal and cubic lattices. Atomic packing factors. Miller indices. Comparison between lattice CFC and EC. Polymorphism and allotropy. Elements of X-ray diffraction Amorphous materials. Solidification and imperfections. Solidification homogeneous and heterogeneous. Energies involved in the solidification homogeneous. Growth of crystals. Grains. Substitutional and interstitial solid solutions. Point defects: holidays and interstitial atoms. The C in the lattice of Fe: role of APF and forms voids. Line defects: dislocations. Burgers vector. Motion of dislocations in plastic deformation. Motion of dislocations: similarities. Plastic deformation and the role of dislocations. Work hardening. Grain boundaries. Edges of twins. Grain size. Mechanical properties. Mechanical reaction to the stress of a material: plastic deformation, elastic and rottura.Forze static and dynamic. Mechanical resistance tests: tensile test; efforts and deformations nominal; graph stress / strain; elastic modulus, shear and Poisson; ductility and its measures; stress at break and necking. Stress and strain real. Examples of tensile tests for different materials. Fracture behavior. Ductile fracture and brittle. Toughness. Fracture in the presence of defects. Impact test. Transition temperature ductile / brittle. Hardness and hardness tests. Fatigue behavior. Fatigue tests. Creep of metals and creep tests. Property thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal expansion and density; transition temperatures. Electrical conductivity: Ohm's law. Primary and secondary metallurgy. Production of iron and steel. Blast furnace. Steel primary and secondary education. Processing of metallic materials. Enforcement mechanisms. Hardening and temperature effect. Control of the grain size. Solid solution strengthening. Effect of alloying elements. Notes on wet and dry corrosion. Reduction potentials. Liabilities. Forms of corrosion thinning, pitting, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion selective. Corrosion of iron in damp conditions. Pourbaix diagrams. Nod on the polarization curves. Methods of corrosion protection: painting, galvanizing, anodizing, cathodic protection. Work on the design and modification of the environment to reduce corrosion. Phase diagrams: microstructures of balance. Phase diagrams of binary: complete miscibility in the liquid state and solid. Determination of the number of phases, their composition and relative abundance. State diagram Cu / Ni. State diagram of complete miscibility in the liquid state and partial or complete immiscibility in the solid state. Eutectic transformation and peritettica. Examples of reading the diagrams. Outline of the ternary phase diagrams. Introduction to the state diagram Fe / C. Diagram of equilibrium. State diagram Fe/Fe3C. Significant points. Perlite and ledeburite. Points critici.Ae, Ac and Ar. Simplified diagram. Transformations during cooling for steel eutettoidico, hypo-and hyper-eutettoidico. Steels and influence of alloying elements sull'eutettoide.
Cast Iron. White and gray cast iron. Malleable irons and speciali.Microstrutture not of equilibrium. Thermal and mechanical properties. Martensite. TTT and CCT. Hardening, tempering, annealing and ricristallizzazione.Classificazione steels. Designation of steels according to UNI EN 10027 and AISI. Elements alfogeni and gammogeni. Steel for reinforced concrete. Steel for reinforced concrete. Steel for reinforced concrete precompresso.Acciai steels. Schaeffler diagram. Austenitic stainless steels. Cor-Ten steel. Binders: defini
L. BERTOLINI: “Materiali da costruzione. Volume I” Città StudiEdizioni 2010
LUCCO BORLERA, C. BRISI: “Tecnologia dei materiali e Chimica Applicata” Levrotto e Bella, Torino, 1992.
W.F. SMITH: “Principles of materials science and engineering” McGraw-Hill, 1995.
V. ALUNNO ROSSETTI: 'Il calcestruzzo: ‘Materiali e Tecnologia' McGraw-Hill, 2007.
Assessment methods and criteria
Written test and oral examination
It's strongly advised to attend the course.