GENERAL PHYSICS 1
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to give to the student an organic knowledge of the fundamental laws of classical mechanics (elementary dynamics and rigid bodies, short account of fluids), mechanical waves and the main principles of thermodynamics; the student should become able to solve in an autonomous way simple problems.
The knowledge of the elementary mathematics and of the differential and integral calculation is recommended, therefore the courses of "Mathematical Analysis 1" and "Geometry" should be previously attended.
Course contents summary
Dimensions and dimensional analysis; units and systems of units; fundamental and derived physical quantities.
Scalar quantities and vector quantities; vector operations.
Coordinate systems; relative position, velocity and acceleration; mono- and bi-dimensional motions with constant or non constant acceleration; radial and tangential accelerations; motion of projectiles, circular motions, etc.; reference frames.
Newton’s laws of motion; contact forces and field forces; the free body diagram; dynamics of the linear and the circular motion; inertial and accelerated reference frames; fictitious forces.
Work and energy:
Kinetic energy; work performed by a force; conservative forces and potential energy; conservation of mechanical energy; the mechanical power.
Definition of momentum and impulse; conservation of linear momentum.
Discrete and continue mass distribution:
The centre of mass. Velocity and acceleration of the centre of mass.
Kinematics of rotational motion (angular coordinates, angular velocity and angular acceleration); relations between linear and angular kinematic quantities.
Rigid body dynamics:
Torque; centre of gravity; angular momentum; moment of inertia; the parallel axis theorem; kinetic energy and work for the rotational motion; equations of motion; Koenig theorems; conservation of the angular momentum; the pure rolling motion.
Gravitational force and Keplero laws.
Impulsive forces and collisions between two bodies (monodimensional central collisions, collisions with free or bound rigid bodies).
Conditions for the static equilibrium of a rigid body.
Kinematics, dynamics and energetic aspects in the motion of the harmonic oscillator and examples.
Wave motion, superposition and interference, linear wave equation, waves on strings, sound waves, standing waves.
Solids and fluids:
Deformation of solids; fundamental quantities and laws of fluids: Stevino’s and Archimedes’ laws, continuity equation and Bernoulli’s law.
Introduction to thermodynamics:
Thermodynamic variables and basic concepts.
Zeroth principle of thermodynamics; thermodynamic equilibrium; temperature, thermometers and temperature scales (Kelvin and Celsius); the constant volume gas thermometer; the thermal expansion.
State equation of ideal gases; kinetic theory of gases; equipartition law; thermodynamic transformations for the ideal gas; reversible and irreversible transformations; p-V diagram; Van der Vaals equation for the real gas.
Heat exchange: thermal capacity and specific heat; latent heat; heat transfer mechanisms.
Heat and work in the thermodynamic transformations for the ideal gas.
First principle of thermodynamics:
Internal energy in the thermodynamic transformations; Meyer’s relationship between specific heats.
Second principle of thermodynamics:
Heat engines and efficiency; the Carnot’s engine; the absolute scale of temperatures; entropy; short accounts of entropy, disorder and probability.
W.E. Gettys, “Fisica 1: Meccanica - Termodinamica”, vol. 1 (Ed. McGraw-Hill).
D. Halliday, R. Resnick, K.S. Krane, “Fisica”, vol. 1 (Ed. Ambrosiana).
P.A. Tipler, G. Mosca, "Corso di fisica", vol. 1-Meccanica Onde termodinamica (Ed. Zanichelli).
S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, “Fisica Generale, Meccanica e Termodinamica” (Ed. Ambrosiana).
P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci, “Fisica” vol. 1, or “Elementi di Fisica” in several volumes, (Ed. ediSES).
R.G.M. Caciuffo, S. Melone, “Fisica Generale - Meccanica e termodinamica” (Ed. Masson S.p.A.).
Practical exercises are proposed, consisting in the solution of simple problems whose text was previously assigned.
The examination consists of a written and an oral test. The written examination can also be taken in form of a few written evaluations in itinere.
Assessment methods and criteria
The level of knowledge of the arguments will be tested through both written and oral examinations.