The course aims to provide students with a scientific approach to the problems and legislative audits in food, with particular reference to the slaughter processing of livestock, the production of meat, milk and eggs and marketing of fishery products. In addition, students will be trained on key health issues related to animal products (microbial contamination, poisoning and food poisoning) and on the Italian and European food regulations (I and II descriptor of Dublin). They also include basic information on the prevention during production, marketing and preservation of meat-, dairy- and egg products susceptible to bacterial contamination with the aim of providing the student with the skills needed to draw up HACCP plans as part of the production food (III, IV and V of Dublin descriptor). During the laboratory exercises ISO official methods for detecting microorganisms of particular importance to hygiene and food safety (Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli, S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae)are applied.
Course contents summary
The hygienic control of foodstuffs. The role of the Veterinary Services. Microbial contamination of food of animal origin. The factors of bacterial growth in foods.
Animal welfare in transport to the slaughterhouse. The slaughter processing of cattle, horses, sheep, goats and pigs. The slaughter of poultry, ratites and rabbits. The health marking of meat.
The cutting and marketing of meat. The compositional characteristics of the meat.
Microbiology of meat spoilage bacteria and pathogens. Alteration of meat products.
The main food-borne diseases: salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, listeriosis, infections by pathogenic Escherichia coli (with particular reference to STEC strains), yersiniosis, brucellosis infection by Clostridium perfringens, vibriosis.
The main food poisoning: botulism poisoning, poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus.
The dairy products: milk production hygiene, microbiological parameters and composition of raw cow's milk and other species. Processing technologies of drinking milk: pasteurization, UHT, sterilization microfiltration. Italian law 169/1989. Legal indicators of heat treatment of milk. Drinking milk of high quality. Marketing of raw milk.
Sanitary problems of the main dairy products: butter, cream, soft cheese, hard cheese, mozzarella cheese, Blu-cheese. Tyramine intoxication.
Sanitary problems of the main fishery products. Evaluation of the freshness of fishery products. Poisoning by histamine. Intoxication algal biotoxins. Fraud in the fisheries sector.
Eggs: commercial classification, labeling. Health issues related to table eggs. Technology of production of egg products and health issues.
The labeling and packaging of food products. Shelf life of food products: expiry date and date of minimum durability.
The HACCP system: application in the food industry.
National and European legislation in the field of food, with particular reference to the "Hygiene package".
Colavita G., Igiene e tecnologia degli alimenti di origine animale, Ed. Point Veterinaire Italie, 2012, Milano.
Lectures and practical exercises in the laboratory of food microbiology.
Assessment methods and criteria
Written exam possibly supplemented by an oral examination