PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY I AND AUTOPSY TECHNIQUES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is aimed at teaching bto the student the basic knowledge of Pathological Veterinary Anatomy . The student must acquire independence of judgment to deal with autonomy the practice.
The curriculum is structured in ex cathedra lectures and practicals to enable student to acquire the basic knowledge of the pathological anatomy Veterinary and simultaneously achieve independence essential skills need to the profession of the veterinary surgeon. For the student the most important moment of the course is the interpretation , with appropriate technical communication ability, gross pathology during necropsy cadaver, and histopathology starting from the knowledge developed during teaching and cultivated in independent study.
The student to follow the course of Veterinary Pathology I, II and Necropsy must have knowledge of General Pathology and Pathophysiology Animal Veterinary Immunopathology. Before the exam of Veterinary Pathology I,II and Necropsy the student must have already taken the exam diPatologia General, Pathophysiology and Immunopathology Veterinary.
Course contents summary
MALE GENITAL SYSTEM
FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM
THE UPPER AND LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
ALIMENTARY SYSTEM INCLUDED LIVER AND PANCREAS
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Definition, aims, importance and limits of the necropsy.
Opening and examination of abdominal cavity, thoracic cavity, head, mouth and nasal cavity. Examination of single organs.
Specimens collection and sending to the laboratory for cytological, histopathological , bacterial or virus isolation, toxicological analysis.
MALE GENITAL APPARATUS
Scrotum and tunica vaginalis pathologies, circulatory and nutritiona disorders of testes, testicular degenerations, orchitis, epidedimitis, neoplasia of testes, diseases of glands (seminal vescicles, prostate, bulbo-urethral), pathologies of penis and prepuce.
FEMALE GENITAL APPARATUS
Ovary cists, hydrosalpinx, salpingitis, pyosalpinx, circulatory and nutritional disases of the uterus, hydrometra, mucometra, endometritis, pathologies of cervix, vagina and vulva, diseases of Bartolini’s gland, diseases of pregnant uterus.
Nasal cavities and Sinuses: Ontogenetic diseases. Circulatory and metabolic disturbances. Inflammation. Neoplasia.
Pharynx, Larynx and Trachea: Metabolic and circulatory disturbances. Inflammations. Neoplasia
Lungs: Atelectasia, Emphysema. Circulatory disturbances. Pneumonitis. Neoplasia.
Pleura: Circulatory disturbances. Pleuritis. Neoplasia
Oral cavity diseases, salivary gland diseases, esophagus diseases, forestomach diseases (rumen dilation, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, viral, bacterial, mycosis, parasistic diseases, neoplasia).
Stomach circulatory disturbancies, gastritis and abomasitis, neoplasia.
Intestinal obstruction, nutritional and circulation disturbancies of intestine, viral enteritis, bacterial enteritis, parasitic enteritis, colitis.
Hyperplastic and neoplastic diseases of intestine.
LIVER AND BILIARY SYSTEM
Principles of liver histopathology (hepatocellular degenerations, pigmentations, necrosis), nutritional and circulatory disturbances, viral hepatitis, bacterial hepatitis, parasitic hepatitis, biliary system inflammation, cirrhosis and sclerosis, hyperplastic and neoplastic diseases of liver and biliary system.
Regressive changes, pancreatitis, neoplasia. Diabetes.
PERITONEUM AND RETROPERITONEUM
Traumatic lesions of peritoneum and retroperitoneum, abnormal contents in the peritoneal cavitiy
Circulatory disturbancies, glomerular and tubular diseases, tubulo-interstitial diseases, neoplasia
Anomalies and inflammation of lower urinary tract diseases (ureters, urinary bladder, urethra), urolithiasis, neoplasia.
Pitiuary and parathyroid diseases, circulatory and inflammation of thyroid, goiter and thyroid neoplasia, Adrenal cortex and medulla diseases. Diabetes mellitus.
Circulatory and traumatic diseases, anoxia, encephalomalacia, viral encephalitis, bacterial encephalitis, parasistic encephalitis, TSE, neoplasia.
Definition, aims, importance and limits of the autopsy. Tanatology.
Equipment. Cautions to take before, after and during the necropsy and relevant regulations.
Anamnesis, external examination. Incision of cutis, opening of the carcass and subcutis examination. Opening and examination of abdominal cavity, thoracic cavity, head, mouth and nasal cavity, neck and pelvis. Examination of single organs. Epicrisis and autoptic report.
Specimens collection and sending to the laboratory for cytological, histopathological and bacterial or virus isolation, toxicological analysis.
MARCATO P.S.: Patologia sistematica veterinaria, Edagricole, Bologna, 2002
GUARDA F., MANDELLI G.: Trattato di anatomia patologica veterinaria, UTET, Torino
TACCINI E. Tecnica autoptica e diagnostica cadaverica, Poletto Editore, Marzo 2006
THOMSON’S Special Veterinari Pathology, Mosby Editor, 2001
Patologia veterinaria sistemica
McGavin M.D., Zachary J.F.
Elsevier Masson, 2010
The course of Veterinary pathology is divided into two parts: classroom lectures and practicals in the histopathology laboratory and necropsy room.
The classroom lectures (Room C) are held by Prof. Corradi during second semester of third year Tuesday and Thursday mornings: the lectures are given by videobeam.
The practical exercises are organized by dividing the students into two groups: Group A and Group B, consisting of up to 25 students.
The practical exercises take place in the necropsy room and in the Multifunctional Laboratory 1.
In necropsy room are showed autopsy techniques on cadavers and on isolated pathological organs, while in Multifunctional Laboratory 1 histopathological teaching are performed using tissue slides and optical microscopes. In the course of histopathology teacher makes also use of video projection to direct the reading and interpretation of the lesions by the student.
The practicals are held on Thursday afternoon and last 20 hours. The practicals in necropsy room are held by Prof. Attilio Corradi while practical of histopathology are held by Dr Rosanna Di Lecce in the Multifunctional Laboratory 1. The student is taught the rules of safety in hazard necropsy room and behaviors that he should be observed: a) in the necropsy room exercises are taught the use of personal protective equipment and management, second law, the cadavers and pathological organs; b) in the histopathology lab are taught the toxicological risks of the use of tissue fixatives and dyes used in histology.
Assessment methods and criteria
The final exam comprises:
a) Practicals on cadaver or pathological organs;
b) Histopathology exam
c) Oral exam