HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY GENERAL VETERINARY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to give at the student a specific knowledge of cytology, embryology and histology.
During the practical activities the student will learn to distinguish structural features of the tissues by optical microscope.
Knowledge provided for the entrance examination
Recovery of educational debt
Course contents summary
During the course the following theoretical concepts will be given:
notions of general embryology and placentation
notions of cytology and histology: the cell, epithelial tissues, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nerve tissue; method of making up and interpretation of histological sections.
During practical activities by optical microscope the student will learn to distinguish structural characteristics of tissues and their organization in organs.
The Biological membrane and the Plasma membrane: structure. Cytoplasmic organelles: Smooth and Rough Endoplasmatic Reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mitocondria, Cytoskeleton: Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments. Centrioles, Centrosome.
Interphase Nucleus: Nuclear Envelope, Nucleoplasm: Nuclear Matrix, Chromatin: Euchromatin, Heterochromatin and Nucleolus.
Intercellular and cell to matrix junctions: Occluding junctions, Adherens Junctions: Adhesion belt, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosomes and Focal, Communicating junctions. Junctional complex.
Specializations of the apical edge of plasma membrane; structural features and localizations: Microvilli, Cilia, Sterociglia.
Stages of cell cycle. Proliferation state, potency and cell differentation. Remind of cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis. Definition of programmed cell death.
Spermatogenesis e Oogenesis.
From spermiogenesis to anfimixis.
Gastrulation: formation of the three germ layers.
Derivates of the embryonic germ layers.
Placenta and extraembryonic membranes in mammals of veterinary interest.
Fetal circulation and adaptations to postnatal life
Embrionyc anexa in birds.
Instruments and methods for cell and tissue observation and study. Methods for the preparation of a histology section: sample harvest, fixation, dehydration, embedding, sectioning, staining and mounting. Elements of histological staining.
Structural organization of organs: Pipe organ, Parenchymatous organs, Laminar organs.
Epithelium Tissue: Embryonic origin and distinctive tissue characteristics.
Lining Epithelium: Classification and localizations: Simple epithelium, Pseudostratified Epithelium, Stratified Epithelium, Sensory Epithelium. Specialized Epithelium.
Glandular Epithelium Exocrine glands: Classification relative to: number of secretory cells, disposition respect the organ wall, secretory units characteristics, ducts system characteristics, method of secretion, secetory product. Localizations.
Endocrine glands: Classification relative to: number of secretory cells, structural features: Solid cell cord gland, Follicular gland, diffuse cells gland.
Connective Tissue: Embryonic origin. Cells and extracellular matrix. Embryonic Connective Tissue. Adult Connective Tissue:
Proper Connective Tissue: Classification and localizations: Collagen Connective Tissue: Loose, Dense: Irregular, Regular: right-angle fibres, parallel fibres. Reticular Connective Tissue. Elastic Connective Tissue. Pigmented Connective Tissue. Adipose Connective Tissue: Brown, White.
Specialized Connective Tissue. Cartilage Tissue: Classification and localizations: Hyaline Cartilage, Fibrocartilage, Elastic Cartilage. Perichomdrium. Features of cartilage cells and matrix.
Bone Tissue: Classification and localizations: Woven bone, Lamellar bone, Compact bone, Spongy bone. Osteogenesis. Features of bone cells and matrix; Periosteum and Endosteum.
Bone Tissue and Bones. Periosteum, Endosteum, Compact and Cancellous or Spongy bone: Bone lamellae, Osteons. Medullary cavità. Bone marrow: Red, Yellow, Gelatinous. Diaphysis > Body. Epiphyses > Extremities. Metaphyses
Fluid Ground Substance Connective Tissue. Blood and Lymph: cell and plasma components. Hematopoiesis. Structural characteristics of: Erythrocytes, Leucocytes: Monoytes, T Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, Granulocytes: Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Platelets.
Muscle Tissue: Embryonic origin and classification of muscle tissue: Smooth Muscle Tissue, Striated Muscle Tissue, Striated Cardiac Muscle Tissue.
Nervous Tissue. General details on nervous tissue and nervous system. Histogenesis of nervous tissue. Neurons. Neuroglial cells. Myelin and nonmyelinated nerve fibres; Nerve fibers. Synapses.
Visit to the histological laboratory.
Technical procedure for paraffin embedded histology.
PELAGALLI G.V., e coll.: Embriologia, Morfogenesi e Anomalie dello Sviluppo, Idelson - Gnocchi, Napoli, 2009.
BARBIERI M., CARINCI P.: Embriologia, Ambrosiana, Milano.
BARONE R.: Anatomia Comparata dei Mammiferi Domestici, Vol 4, Edagricole, Bologna.
DE FELICI M., e coll.: Embriologia Umana - Morfogenesi - Processi molecolari - Aspetti Clinici, Piccin, Padova, 2009.
LATSHAW W. K.: Lo sviluppo degli Animali Domestici – Embriologia ad Orientamento Clinico, Ambrosiana, Milano.
NODEN DREW M., DE LAHUNTA A.: Embriologia degli Animali Domestici – Sviluppo normale e Malformazioni congenite, Edi-ermes, Milano.
-Cytology and Histology:
ADAMO S., CARINCI P., MOLINARO., SIRACUSA G., STEFANINI M., ZIPARO E.: Istologia di V. MONESI, Piccin, Padova.
CASASCO E.: Citologia Istologia, La Goliardica Pavese, Pavia
COOPER G. M., HAUSMAN R. E.: La cellula un approccio molecolare, Piccin, Padova
-Atlas of histology:
ROSS M. H., PAWLINA W., BARNASH T. A.: Atlante di Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica, Ambrosiana, Milano, 2010.
--Other atlas of histology:
BACHA W. J., WOOD L. M.: Atlante a colori di istologia veterinaria, Delfino, Roma.
YOUNG B., LOVE J.S., STEVENS A., HEATH J. W.: Wheater – Istologia e anatomia microscopica, Elsevier Masson, Milano.
Theoretical training - Lectures:
Recognition in histological slides by means of optical microscope:
Neuron: cell body and nerve cell processes
Assessment methods and criteria
Recognition of histological slide by light microscopy
and oral exam