Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the General Pathology course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology and mechanisms and alterations of the innate and adaptive immune response. Great emphasis will be given to molecular pathology, oncology and immunology in order to allow the student to apply the knowledge gained to understanding the mechanisms of action of drugs and to identify new potential therapeutic targets for the acquisition of useful skills for the future profession.
Course contents summary
Etiology. Cellular pathology. Molecular and cellular oncology. Immunology and immunopathology. Acute and chronic inflammation and tissue repair. Biochemical and metabolic pathology. Blood physiopathology. Cardiovascular physiopathology.
Extrinsic causes of disease. Radiation injury by ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Chemical injury. Nutrition and disease. Intrinsic causes of disease. The molecular mechanisms of mutations and DNA repair. Transmission patterns of pathological characters. Single-gene disorders. Disorders
with multifactorial inheritance.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Definition, nomenclature, and biological properties of benign and malignant neoplasms. Classification, grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer. Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptotic genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis. Neoplastic phenotype. Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals. Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis in humans. Genetic predisposition to cancer. Biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Immunology and immunopathology
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune system. Effectors of the immune response: antibodies, T helper lymphocytes and cytokines, T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. Hypersensitivity. Immunological tolerance and autoimmune diseases. Celiac disease. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
Acute and chronic inflammation
Vascular changes, cellular events and chemical mediators. Inflammatory exudate and systemic effects. Fever and hyperthermia. Chronic inflammation: classification, cytological features and granuloma. Tissue repair.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Sickle cell disease. Iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemias. Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma.
The hemostatic response and its control mechanisms. Thrombosis. Embolism. Atherosclerosis. Clinical manifestations of ischemic heart disease. Arrhythmias. Hypertension and hypotension. Edema.
Biochemical, metabolic, and endocrine pathology
Pathogenesis of type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of lipids circulation in the plasma. Familial hypercholesterolemia. Steatosis. Cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer's disease.
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Elsevier VIII edizione.
Pontieri-Russo-Frati: Patologia Generale. Piccin IV edizione
Abbas A.K. e Lichtman: Le basi dell’Immunologia. Fisiopatologia del Sistema Immunitario. MASSON Elsevier II edizione.
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures, with the aid of iconographic material, trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts. Using the knowledge also acquired in other courses the student must demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology.