Hygiene and Inspection of food animal origin
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims is:
to give students a basic understanding of hygiene principles applicable in the field of food production and distribution to ensure the safety of the product intended for consumption.
To provide an overview of the main contaminants of food and prevention measures for different levels of the food chain
To give the basic knowledges about the main structures and laws concerning food inspection;
To give informations about the main bacteria concerning food inspection (indicators of quality and safety);
To provide notions about the concept of risk and how this is handled in the field of inspection;
To give knowledges about the principal risks for the consumer, associated with food consumption: meat and fish.
Course contents summary
The course contents are divided into two modules and they concern the field of foodstuff safety from the point of view of food hygiene and inspection activities relating to the products of animal origin.
The discussion will cover the fundamentals of general hygiene (epidemiology and prevention) and an excursus on the main types of contaminants and the problems associated with them, with reference to water for human consumption. It will be given the basics and principles of the HACCP system. The final section covers the basics of hygiene of the food production and sanitation of surfaces in contact with food, general principles of personal hygiene and basis of pests control. As regards the scope of the inspection it will deal with different aspects (role of food inspection activities, food safety and process hygiene criteria, sampling plans, labelling and traceability of food products and microbiological risk and its assessment in public health)
referring to the European legislation.
Hygiene: epidemiology and prevention basic principles ; general epidemiology, infectious diseases epidemiology, non- infectious disease epidemiology. Prevention: levels, principles of infectious diseases and non- infectious disease prevention. Disinfection, sterilization, sanitation. Physical disinfection and sterilization, chemical disinfectants. Basic topics of immunoprophylaxis.
Contamination and microbial growth in food. Contamination: nature, source; microorganisms in food; intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting microbial growth in foods.
Food-borne infectious diseases: botulism, S.aureus foodborne infections, salmonellosis, V. parahaemolyticus infection, C. perfrigens infection, B. cereus infection, campylobacteriosis, listeriosis, enteropathogenic E.coli infections, main viral infections (hepatitis A, norovirus infection)
Chemical contamination: toxicity, main groups of chemical contaminants and their origin: environmental contaminants, residues of primary production, contaminants acquired during processing and / or storage, mycotoxins.
Physical contamination: origin and prevention.
Water for human consumption: definition, requirements, criteria for drinking water: hydrogeological, organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological standards.
HACCP: general principles
Cleaning and sanitation of food contact surfaces and food processing areas; requirements of the structures and layout of production and processing areas; dirt definition, detergents and cleaning stages of standard procedures, monitoring and verification.
Food handlers hygiene
Principles of pets control
Introduction to the legal framework of the subject-matter; horizontal and vertical rules.
The role of food inspection activities: national legislation (L. 283/62, DPR 327/80) and European regulation (Regulation 882/04).
Perishable food: DM 16.12.1993.
Microorganisms indicating food safety and quality.
Microbiological criteria applicable to foodstuffs (Regulation no. 2073/05): food safety criteria and process hygiene criteria.
Two and three classes sampling plans.
Criminal offences in the field of foodstuff: toxic, commercial and ambivalent frauds.
Criminal offences against public health and measures taken under the Italian Penal Code; unfair commercial practices.
Labelling and traceability of food products.
The principles and requirements laid down in the White Paper on Food Safety ; The EU Regulation 178/02.
New food safety legislation; New food hygiene legislation (Reg. EC no. 852/04, 853/04, 854/04).
The principles of the HACCP system; implementation issues.
The microbiological risk and its assessment in public health.
Galli A., Bertoldi A. (2006): Igiene degli alimenti e HACCP.
Baggiani A., Goracci E., Rastelli M.G., Goracci G. (2008) Manuale di igiene degli alimenti e delle bevande. Edizioni Plus.
Tiecco G. (2000): Ispezione degli Alimenti di Origine Animale. Calderini Edagricole, Bologna.
Tiecco G. (1999): Igiene e Tecnologia Alimentare. Edagricole, Bologna.
Marcato P.S. (1995): Patologia animale e ispezione sanitaria delle carni fresche. Edagricole.
Romboli B. e Mantovani G. (1989):Ispezione e controllo delle derrate alimentari di origine animale. UTET
Capelli F., Klaus B., Silano V. (2006): Nuova disciplina del settore alimentare e autorità europea per la sicurezza alimentare.
Assessment methods and criteria
oral and written test