Learning outcomes of the course unit
Study of the structural alterations induced by diseases in the organs, cells and molecules as a basis for the evaluation of the etiology and pathogenesis, prognosis and choice of therapeutic options. Additionally, the student will learn the function of Pathological Anatomy in modern clinical medicine, and the diagnostic applications of the techniques currently in use in the discipline, including cytology, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology applied to the tissue and electron microscopy. With these goals in mind, the course involves the study of the pathological anatomy of the central nervous system, the head-neck district, the hemolymphopoietic/spleen/thymus system, the mediastinum, the female genital system and pregnancy, the mammary gland, the skin, bone and soft tissue, the testicles and biliary tract.
Basic knowledge of:
NORMAL HUMAN ANATOMY
Course contents summary
SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY.
Learning of the fundamental elements of etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, macro- and microscopic pathological morphology, as well as anatomical/clinical correlations of lesions to the following systems:
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Oedema, herniation, hydrocephalus, Cerebral oedema, Herniation, Hydrocephalus, Vascular diseases, Global hypoxic ischemic Encephalopathy, Infarction, Intracranial hemorrhage, Primary parenchymal hemorrhage, Subarachnoid hemorrhage and hemorrhage due to saccular aneurysm, Vascular malformations, Congenital malformations and perinatal damage, Neural tube defects, Disorders associated with hydrocephalus, Perinatal damage, Infections, Epidural and subdural infections, Meningitis, Parenchymal infections, Abscesses, TBC and toxoplasmosis, Viral encephalitis, Spongiform Encephalopathy, Neoplasms, Primitive neoplasms, Primitive neuroglial neoplasms (gliomas), Astrocytomas, Oligodendrogliomas, Ependymomas, Embryonal tumours (PNET, medulloblastomas), Neuronal neoplasms, Gangliocytomas, Neurocytomas, Meningiomas, Secondary neoplasms, Degenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Demyelinizing diseases, Multiple sclerosis, HEAD-NECK: ORAL CAVITY: Leukoplakia and erythroplakia, Carcinoma; RINOFARINGE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; SALIVARY GLANDS: Inflammation, Sialadenitis (lithiasic and non), Sjogren’s Syndrome, Tumours: Pleomorphic ademona; Warthin’s tumour (Adenolymphoma);Mucoepidermoid carcinoma; cystadenocarcinoma; Acinic cell carcinoma; LARYNX: Polyps, Papilloma, papillomatosis, Carcinoma. HEMOLYMPHOPOIETIC SYSTEM, LYMPH NODES AND BLOOD: Reactive proliferations, neoplastic proliferations, Non Hodgkin lymphomas, From B and T precursors, B lymphoblastic lymphoma, T lymphoblastic lymphoma, peripheral B-cell and plasma cell lymphomas, small lymphocyte lymphomas LLC tumours, Follicular lymphomas, Large B-cell lymphomas, Burkitt’s lymphoma, Multiple myelomas, solitary myelomas, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, Maltomas, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, L. T periferici, non-specific T-cell lymphomas, Fungoid mycosis, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Nodular sclerosis, Mixed cellularity, lymphocyte predominance, Myeloid neoplasms, Leukemia: organ consequences, disseminated intravasal coagulation: organ consequences. SPLEEN: Splenomegaly, Neoplasms. THYMUS: Hyperplasms, Neoplasms; MEDIASTINUM: Subdivision of the mediastinic regions, Inflammatory diseases, Cysts, Tumours: Thyroid/parathyroid, Thymus, Type A germinal cells, Lymphomas, Neurogenous, Metastatic. FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM. VULVA: Vulvar distrophy: Sclero-atrophic lichen, squamous hyperplasia, Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), Carcinoma: variants, grading, stadiation, Extramammary Paget’s Disease. UTERUS: Cervix, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Squamocellular carcinoma: variants, grading, stadiation; Cervical adenocarcinoma: Variants, grading, stadiation, Endometrium, Adenomyosis; endometriosis; endometrial hyperplasia; polyps; Adenocarcinoma: variants, grading, stadiation; Mesenchymal tumours: leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma; stromal tumour. OVARIES: Non neoplastic and functional ovarian cysts; ovarian neoplasms: variants, grading, stadiation; Germinal cell tumours; Tumours of the gonadic stroma and sex cords PREGNANCY AND PLACENTA: Trophoblastic diseases of pregnancy: hydatiform mola; invasive mole; choriocarcinoma; trophoblastic tumour of the implant site; Placenta diseases: Inflammations, placental anomalies; twin placentas. MAMMARY GLAND: Diseases of the galactophorous ducts; Duct ectasia; Diseases of the Lobe-Terminal Ducts (TDLU); Cystic fibroadenosis; Fibrosis; Adenosis, simple and sclerosing; Cysts; Epithelial hyperplasia: Typical, Atypical (ductal, lobular, cil. cell); Sclero-elastic lesion. Tumours: Fibroadenoma, Papilloma (solitary, multiple), Phylloid tumour, Carcinoma: Ductale in situ, Lobular in situ, Invasive
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SSD MED/08: Prof.Cesare Bordi (Coordinator), Prof.Enrico Maria Silini, Prof.Guido Rindi, Prof.Giovanna Giordano, Prof.Domenico Corradi