Learning outcomes of the course unit
Principles and methods for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases
Aetiology, outline of pathogenesis, clinical samples, laboratory diagnostic procedures, interpretation of the results of microbiological and virological investigations to diagnose the infectious diseases.
The determination of susceptibility/resistance of the pathogenic agents to chemotherapeutics
- to know the most relevant laboratory tests
- to understand the role and the importance of the laboratory medicine for a correct diagnosis
- to evaluate cost/benefit ratio
To correctly apply the fit methodologies to notice the functional finds and of laboratory, critically also interpreting them under the physiopathologic profile, to the goals of the diagnosis and the prognosis. The student has to be able to point out for the clinical cases of different typology, brought to his/her observation, the more appropriate investigations of laboratory, to appraise of it critically the diagnostic meaning and to suggest the more effective close examinations of laboratory.
All the examinations expected to the term of the 4th year
It is mandatory to pass the pre-clinic exams before being allowed to take the exam of Laboratory Medicine.
Course contents summary
Principles and methods for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases: - Demonstration of the pathogenic agent and its constituents in the pathological material- Demonstration of a recent specific immune response- The medical prescription of microbiological and virological investigations- Collection, transport and preservation of the clinical samples for microbiological and virological investigations.- Aetiology, outline of pathogenesis, clinical samples, laboratory diagnostic procedures, interpretation of the results of microbiological and virological investigations regarding the diagnosis of: - Infections of the respiratory apparatus- Infections of the intestinal apparatus and related glands- Systemic infections- Infections of the cardiovascular apparatus- Infections of the central nervous system- Infections of the genitourinary apparatus and sexually-transmitted infections- Infections of the skin and cutaneous adnexa- Infections of the muscular-skeletal apparatus- Infections of the eye and the ear- prenatal, connatal and perinatal infections.-The nosocomial infections-The determination of susceptibility/resistance of the pathogenic agents to chemotherapeutics:- Methods - Interpretation of the results- The dosage of chemotherapeutics in tissues and biological fluids.
To begin to apply the logical tools in the clinical reasoning and to address the choices of the diagnostic tools according to the decisional criterions of efficiency and effectiveness that keep in mind of the relationships among benefits, risks and costs.
- Preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical variability. Condition that can alter the results of the analyses of laboratory; different possibilities of collecting.- Correct application of the techniques for the collecting and the harvest of the materials.-The concept of normality in biology and the functions of risk (normal values on statistic base, normal values on biological base, desirable values and functions of risk, usable decisional values to diagnostic or therapeutic end).-General principles of the most diffused techniques in use near the clinical laboratories. Control of quality.-To appraise critically a report (intervals of reference, sensibility and specificity of a test, predictive value, critical difference). The values of reference of the analyses of the common routine. -Elements of diagnostic molecular.-Investigations for the control of the pregnancy.-Interpretation of the complete examination of the urines in key of diagnostic use.-Interpretation of measures of enzymes and isoenzymes, and of other indicators as diagnostic mean in specific pathologies and of organ.-Alterations biochemical-clinics in the carbohydrate metabolism.-Alterations biochemical-clinics in the lipid metabolism.-Alterations biochemical-clinics in the purine metabolism.-Alterations biochemical-clinics in the electrolytes.-Alterations biochemical-clinics in the mineral metabolism and the connected pathologies.-Interpretation of the variations of the parameters of the equilibrium acid-base in relationship to their pathologies.-To orient on the choice and on the meaning of the principal diagnostic tests in the most common endocrine pathologies.-Interpretation of the alterations of the plasma proteins as suspect diagnostic of the pathologies to them connect.
Laboratory tests, patient preparation, biological samples-Hematological laboratory test and their interpretation in the diagnosis of hematological diseases-Endocrine and metabolic test and their interpretation-Tumour markers and their interpretation-Diagnostic molecular biology
Professionalizing training: Legend: 0: The student has seen the execution, 1: The student has executed at least one time, 2: The student is able to execute autonomously.
Medical prescription of microbiological and v
ANNA M. M0LINA ROMANZI
Gli aspetti microbiologici delle malattie infettive
W.J.MARSHALI AND S.K. BANGERT
'Biochimica in. Medicina Clinica'
'Clinical Diagnosis and Management by laboratory Methods'
W.B. Sanders Company, Philadelphia.
G. FEDERICI, P. CIPRIANI, C. CORTESE, A. FUSCO, P. IALONGO, C. MILANI
“Medicina di laboratorio” McGraw – Hill, (ultima edizione)
“Interpretazione clinica degli esami di laboratorio” – McGraw – Hill, (ultima edizione)
The practical laboratory activity includes the professionalizing training.
Teaching activity: frontal lessons, interactive activity for small groups, seminars, learning by solving problems
Kind of exam: oral test
SSD MED/07: Prof.Carlo Chezzi (Coordinator), Prof.Adriana Calderaro
SSD BIO/12: Prof.Amos Casti
SSD MED/05: Prof.Gloria Saccani, Prof.Maria Cristina Baroni
SSD MED/46: Prof.Carlo Chezzi, Prof.Vittorio Coiro