GENERAL PATHOLOGY (ATT)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
In depth knowledge of the etio-pathogenetic factors that underlie the alterations of structures and functions involved in human disease at molecular, cellular, and whole-organism levels.
Course contents summary
Introductory concepts. Health and homeostasis. Deviations from homeostasis. The etiology of tissue injury at molecular level. Extrinsic causes of disease: Physical causes; Chemical causes; Biological causes. Intrinsic causes of disease: Single-gene disorders with classic and non classic inheritance; Multifactorial diseases; Cytogenetic disorders.
Molecular pathology. Alterations of DNA, RNA, proteins. Mechanisms of DNA alterations. Extrinsic causes of DNA damage. Mechanisms of DNA repair. Mutations. RNA pathology. Alterations of proteins and protein misfolding. Functional consequences of protein alterations. Genotype and phenotype. Selected examples of genetic diseases: alterations of structural proteins; hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias, channelopathies and alterations of transporters, disorders of hormones and receptors, extracellular accumulation of proteins.
Cellular pathology. Reversibile and irreversibile cell injury. Adaptive mechanisms to cell injury: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Biotransformations: Phases of xenobiotic metabolism; Cytochromes P450, Metabolism of ethanol. Free radicals and disease: Production of ROS; Molecular and cellular targets of the oxidative stress; Scavenger enzymes and antioxidants. The ischemic-hypoxic stress: Mechanisms; Metabolic consequences; Reperfusion injury; The response to ischemic-hypoxic stress; Mechanisms of ischemic damage to the myocardium and the central nervous system. Intracellular accumulations: Glycogenosis; Protein accumulation; Steatosis; Accumulation of dyes, pigments, metals. Organelle pathology: Lysosomes; Mitochondria; Endoplasmic reticulum; Peroxysomes; The cytoskeleton. Cell aging and its relationships with human disease. Progeroid syndromes. Cell death: Accidental cell death (oncosis); Programmed cell death (apoptosis and other types). Necrosis and post-necrotic changes.
Kumar, Abbas, Fausto. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th Edition, Elsevier, 2005
Pontieri, Russo, Frati. Patologia Generale. III Edizione. Piccin, 2005.
Majno, Joris. Cell, Tissues, and Disease. Principles of General Pathology. Blackwell Science, 2005.
An elective written examination is possible at the end of the course. The final examination on the contents of both this Course and Course 08707 must be taken at the end of the Course 08707 Patologia Generale (1st semester - 3rd year).
The Course is performed by prof. Giancarlo Gazzola, prof. Valeria Dall'Asta, prof. Ovidio Bussolati, prof. Roberto Sala, prof. Bianca Maria Rotoli