Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course of Chemistry is aimed to supply a chemical reading key for the understanding of the natural phenomena and to introduce the fundamental knowledge for the study of matter in relation to its composition, structure, reactivity, property. The course is organized into topics with particular reference to problems involving the environment.
No specific chemical knowledge required.
Course contents summary
The foundations of the atomic theory of matter. Substances, elements, compounds. Atomic and molecular mass. Isotopes. Oxidation number. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Mole. Chemical reactions. Stoichiometry. Atomic structure of matter. Introduction to quantum mechanics. Bohr's atom and developments of the model. Atomic orbitals. Electronic configurations of elements. Periodic table and periodic properties of elements. Chemical bond. Ionic and covalent models of chemical bond. Lewis symbolism, structure formula. Valence bond theory. Hybrid orbitals. VSEPR theory and molecular geometry. Pauling electronegativity. Weak intermolecular interactions. Gaseous state. Introduction to the kinetic theory of gases. Properties and laws of ideal and real gases. Speed of gaseous molecules and temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Solid state. Symmetry in crystals. Crystallographic classes and systems. Correlation between properties and structure in ionic, molecular and metallic crystals. Polymorphism, isomorphism. Liquid state. Properties of liquids. Vapour pressure and temperature. Properties and compositions of solutions. Ways to express composition. Raoult's law and deviations from the ideal behaviour. Colligative properties. Thermochemistry and chemical thermodynamics. The three principles of thermodynamics. Energetic in chemical systems. Enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy. Chemical equilibrium. Homogeneous systems. Mass action law. Equilibrium constant. Heterogeneous systems. Phase rule. Phase diagrams of one-component systems. Proton exchange equilibria. Nature of acids and bases. Relationships between structure and acid/base properties. Ionization of water. pH. pH indicators. Hydrolysis. Anphoter compounds. Buffer solutions. Solubility of salts, solubility product constant. Electron exchange equilibria. Galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, accumulators. Standard reduction potentials. Nerst law. Faraday laws. Application od the electrochemical series of elements. Chemical kinetics. Reaction speed. Reaction order. Reaction mechanisms. Molecular collision theory. Transition state. Photochemical reactions. Catalysts and inhibitors.
Kotz, Treichel - Chimica, SES // Malatesta, Cenini - Principi di chimica generale, C.E. Ambrosiana // Atkins, Jones - Chimica Generale, Zanichelli // Zanello, Mangani, Valensin - Le basi della chimica, C.E. Ambrosiana // Manotti-Lanfredi, Tiripicchio - Fondamenti di chimica, C.E. Ambrosiana
Traditional lessons with exercises.
Assessment methods and criteria