HUMAN ANATOMY (A)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The trend of modern medicine to a loss of contact with the sick human body in favour of the efficiency of health performance, makes it essential the education of a physician that possesses solid and direct knowledge of the structural organization of the human body and its main applications for the diagnostic examination. The objective of the Course of Human Anatomy is to describe the systematic and regional anatomy of the human body in its macroscopic and microscopic aspects in the various periods of the lifetime, to describe the organogenesis and the various phases of the development, identifying the individual variabilities, give basic knowledge of anthropometry, give a methodological approach propedeutical to the clinical reasoning.
EXAMINATIONS OF HISTOLOGY AND OF ANATOMY OF THE MUSCOLO-SKELETAL SYSTEM
Course contents summary
Cardio-vascular system: Embryology and organogenesis of the cardiovascular system; gross anatomy, histology and radiological anatomy of the heart; morfo-functional, cellular and molecular characteristics of the blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries); arteries and veins of the general and pulmonary circulation.
Lymphatic vascular system: mechanisms and topography of the lymphatic drainage; gross anatomy, histology and functional and molecular architecture of the blood-forming organs (Bone marrow) and primary and secondary lymphoid organs (Thymus, Spleen, Lymph nodes).
Urinary system: General organization and organogenesis; gross anatomy and histology of the kidney; cytology and molecular anatomy of the nephron; topography and structure of the ureter, bladder and urethra.
Reproductive system: General organization and organogenesis. Female genital system: histology and gross anatomy of the ovary, uterine tubes, uterus and vaginal canal; morfo-functional aspects of the ovarian cycle. Male genital system: histology and gross anatomy of the testicle, epididimus, prostate and of the ductal system. External genital organs.
Digestive system: Gross anatomy, histology and organogenesis of the digestive tract and of the digestive glands. Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity.
Respiratory system: Gross anatomy and histology of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the pleura.
Endocrine system: gross anatomy and histology of the endocrine glands: adeno and neuro-hypophysis, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, crhomaffin system, diffuse neuro-endocrine system, adrenal glands, paraganglia, endocrine pancreas.
Regional anatomy of some areas of particular clinical interest: supra and infra hyoid regions of the neck, mediastinum, pleuro-pulmonary and costo-diafragmatic regions; regions of the abdomen; mammary region with particular reference to the structural organization of the gland and its lymphatic drainage; axillary region; perineum.
Neuroanatomy: general organization and organogenesis of the nervous system. Gross anatomy and structure of spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon with morfo-functional correlations. The cranial nerves. The motor and the sensory systems. Anatomy of the visual, auditory, vestibular systems. The meninges, the cerebrospinal fluid and the ventricular system. Skull-cerebral topography. The autonomic nervous system. The peripheral nervous system: gross anatomy with functional references, territories of peripheral innervation.
Human anatomy (Balboni et to the.), Ed. EdiErmes;
GRAY’s Anatomy (Gray), Ed. Zanichelli;
Clinically oriented anatomy (Moore-Dalley), English Edition.
Anatomy of the Human Nervous System (Barr-Kiernan), Ed. McGraw-Hill
Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy, Masson