MICROBIOLOGY - GENERAL PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The purpose of the course is to gain knowledge of:
bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses; host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis of infectious diseases; mechanisms of action and use of common antimicrobial and antiviral agents; host immune response and prevention of infectious diseases;
the etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of diseases in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Notions of semeiotic and medical terminology are important for the future profession.
Getting through Fisiologia generale and Biochimica/Biochimica applicata.
Course contents summary
Essential knowledge about:
Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, viroids and prions; host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis of infectious diseases; mechanisms of action and use of common antimicrobial and antiviral agents; host immune response and prevention of infectious diseases. Recombinant DNA and pharmaceutical products.
Etiology of diseases. Cellular Pathology. Oncology. Immunology and immunopathology. Inflammation. Cardiovascular physiopathology. Blood physiopathology. Biochemical and metabolic pathology.
Origin and evolution of microorganisms and Microbiology. Observation of microorganisms and viruses. Structure and functions of prokaryotic cell. Fungi. Protozoa. Viruses, viroids and prions. Growth and metabolism of microorganisms. Cultivation, titration and classification of microorganisms and viruses. Genetics of microorganisms and viruses: genetic recombination. Host-parasite relationships in infection and infectious disease. Microbial population of the human body. Pathogens and their mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence. Mechanisms of pathogenicity of the virus. Major infectious diseases. Infections and Immunity: nonspecific and specific defenses against infection. Vaccines and sera. Strategies of microorganisms and viruses to escape the immune system. Antimicrobial chemical and physical agents. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antiviral agents: mechanism of action, resistance and sensitivity assays. Pharmaceutical Microbiology: Microorganisms in chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Assessment of genotoxicity: Ames test. Biotechnology: Recombinant DNA and pharmaceutical products.
Environmental Pathology. Radiation injury by ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Chemical injury. Nutrition and disease. Intrinsic causes of disease. The molecular mechanisms of mutations and DNA repair. Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders. Disorders with multifactorial inheritance.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Cellular aging. Free radical pathology. Oxidative stress. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer. Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptoticc genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals. Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic predisposition to cancer. Effects of tumours on the host. Nutritional and hormonal effects. Biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Immunology and immunopathology
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response. The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1, TH2, TC lymphocytes, cytokines. Immunity to bacteria , virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Immunodeficiency. Hypersensitivity. Pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
General features of acute inflammation: vascular changes, cellular events and chemical mediators. Types of acute inflammation. Systemic effects. Fever and hyperthermia Chronic inflammation: types, morphologic features and granuloma. Tissue repair.
Hemostasis. Trombosis, embolism, angina and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. Hypertension and hypotension.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Sickle cell disease. Iron deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anemias. Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma.
Biochemical and metabolic pathology
Pathogenesis of type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of lipids circulation in the plasma. Familial hypercholesterolemia. Steatosis. Cystic fibrosis.
Carlone et al. - Microbiologia Farmaceutica - Editrice Edises.
Hugo-Russell - Microbiologia Farmaceutica - Editrice EMSI, Roma.
Murray, Rosenthal, Kobayashi, Pfaller - Microbiologia. EdiSES, Napoli.
La Placa - Principi di Microbiologia Medica - Società Editrice Esculapio, Bologna.
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Elsevier VIII edizione
Pontieri-Russo-Frati: Patologia Generale. Piccin IV edizione.
Abbas A.K. e Lichtman: Le basi dell’ Immunologia. Fisiopatologia del Sistema Immunitario. MASSON Elsevier II edizione.
Assessment methods and criteria