GENERAL CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY (UNIT C)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
On the basis of the electronic structure of the atom, to rationalize the properties of pure substance, either the inorganic/organic compounds and the biological macromolecules.
Course contents summary
Chemistry foundations. Atomic structure. Chemical Bonding. Solutions.
Chemical reactions and kinetics. Enzymes, coenzymes and biological red-ox reactions.
Foundations of Organic Chemistry.
Molecules of biological systems: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids.
ATP, the energy currency of cellular metabolism. Thermodynamics of biological reactions.
Chemistry foundations: Physical and chemical transformations. Mixtures, elements and compounds.
Atomic structure: Energy levels, valence electrons and Lewis structure. Chemical Bonding: pure and polar covalent bond. Electronegativity. Ionic bond. Form and polarity of the molecules of water, ammonia and methane. Intermolecular forces, hydrogen bond.
Solutions: definitions of solvent, solute and solubility. Water as a polar solvent. Osmotic pressure.
Chemical reactions and kinetics: reaction rate, activation energy, function of catalysts.
Enzymes, coenzymes and biological red-ox reactions.
Chemical equilibrium: equilibrium constant and Le Chatelier’s principle. Water ionic dissociation and ionic product of water. pH function. Strenght of acids and bases.
Equilibrium solutions: buffers, physiological examples.
Foundations of Organic Chemistry: main functional groups.
Molecules of biological systems: biological function of water molecule.
Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and omopolysaccharides. Lipids: fatty acids, lipids, complex lipids and steroids.
Proteins: aminoacids and peptide bond. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary protein structure.
Nucleic Acids: nucleotides and phosphodiesteric bond. DNA and RNA structures.
ATP, the energy currency of cellular metabolism: ATP structure and function. Thermodynamics of biological reactions: Gibbs free energy and spontaneity of the chemical reactions.
Cellular metabolism. Oxidation and degradation reactions, biosynthesis.
La chimica in moduli (A-H), Ed. Zanichelli
Authors: Valitutti, Tifi, Gentile
Frontal lessons aided by presentations and animations files.
Assessment methods and criteria