PHYSIOLOGY UNIT B
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student will be requred to have basic knowledge about the cell and system physiology. Particular importance is given to the physiology of muscle, sensory and motor nervous system, breahting and cardiocirculatory system
Course contents summary
The cell membrane
Cell membrane structure; membrane proteins; transport mechanisms across membranes.
Electrical properties of membranes
Electrochemical gradients; passive and active ion channels; resting membrane potential; passive electrical properties of the membrane; action potential, genesis and conduction; classification of nerve fibers.
Electrical and chemical synapses; neuromuscular transmission; synapses in the central nervous system, neurotransmitters; receptors.
Functional anatomy of the central nervous system; methodological approaches in neuroscience.
Principles of psychophysics; peripheral mechanisms of somatic sensation; sensory pathways and transport of somatosensory information; somatosensory cortex; pain; central mechanisms of modulation of pain sensation.
Principles of optics; photoreceptors; visual pathways; subcortical processing of visual information; cortical processing of visual information; oculomotor control.
Audition, Taste and Olfaction
Basic principles of transduction and processing of auditory, taste and olfactory information
Reticular formation; state of alertness; sleep
Neurophysiology of the motor system
Hierarchical organization of the motor system; feed-back and feed-forward mechanisms in motor control; organization of the spinal cord; spinal reflexes; motor descending pathways; organization of the brainstem; control of the muscle tonus; vestibular system; vestibular and brainstem reflexes; cortical motor control; motor cortex; parietal cortex; sensory-motor transformations; cerebellum; basal ganglia.
Memory and learning, neurophysiological basis
Autonomic nervous system
Limbic system; hypothalamus and homeostatic control; autonomic nervous system; vegetative reflexes
Muscular tissue; organization of the skeletal muscular tissue, contraction; excitation-contraction coupling; types of contraction; muscle performance: single muscle fiber, motor unit, tendon-muscle unit; energy production and metabolism of the skeletal muscle; physical exercise and muscle plasticity; smooth muscle.
Blood functions; general characteristics: liquid and corpuscular components; coagulation; blood volume.
HEART AND BLOOD CIRCULATION
Physical principles of hemodynamics; blood physical properties; properties of the heart muscle: autogeneration of action potentials, conduction of action potentials, excitability, contraction; electrophysiology of the heart muscle; ECG; mechanical events of the cardiac cycle; heart work and performance; cardiac output; regulation of heart functions; physical exercise and heart plasticity.
Circulation system; vasomotor regulation; arterial blood pressure; venous blood pressure and venous blood return; cardiac circulation and heart metabolism.
Skin, muscle, kidney, visceral and cerebral circulation.
Physical properties of gases; functional anatomy of the lungs; lung volumes and total lung capacity; mechanics of external respiration; lung compliance; respiratory resistances; alveolar and lung ventilation; inhaled, alveolar and exhaled air; gases exchanges through the alveolo-capillary barrier; gases transport in the blood; blood flow through the lungs; ventilation-perfusion relationships; regulation of respiration. Respiration in unusual environments.
Functional anatomy; blood flow through the kidney; glomerulus and glomerular filtration; tubular reabsorption and secretion; clearance; urinary constituents; regulation of the kidney functions; micturition.
Functional anatomy; hormonal and nervous control of digestive functions; motility of digestive tract: mastication, deglutition, gastric and intestinal motility; defe
Fisiologia dell’uomo, a cura di P.E. Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas, Casa Editrice EDI-ERMES, Milano