FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
A good knowledge of the fundamental principles of the Calorimetry and Thermodynamics. A satisfying mastery of the fundamental elements of the calculus in order to study the thermodynamic proceses and to undestrand the principles on which the thermal engines are based.. An efficient ability in distinguishing between a particular and a general approach.
Corse unit: Mechanics of a single particle (Autumn term)
Course unit: Mechanics of many particles systems (first part of the Spring term)
Course units : Calculus IIand II (Autumn term)
Course contents summary
1. Temperature and Heat ( 4 lectures): Temperaure and thermal equilibrium. Temperature measurements.. Heat. specific heat and heat capacity. Latent heat. Calorimetry. Heat transfer. Experimental examples of specific heat measurements: Joule’s calorimeter, liquid nitrogen calorimeter. Outlines on the blackbody emission and Stefan’s law. Specific heat of solids: Experimental example: the Nerst’s calorimeter.
2. Thermodynamics processes ( 4 lectures): Thermodynamic system and thermodynamics variables. Freedom degrees and Gibb’s rule. Reversible and irreversible processes. Particular thermodynamics processes: constant-volume, constant-temperaure (isothermal), constant-pressure (isobaric), adiabatic.
3. The behaviour of Gases (3 lectures ): Ideal gases. The equation of state (Ideal gases): law of Gay-Lussac and law of Boyle. Molar heat capacity of an ideal gas. Outlines on the behaviour of real gases.
4. Kinetic theory of gases (2 lectures) Outlines on the kinetic theory of gases: kinetic theory of pressure and temperature of an ideal gas.The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.
5.Thermodynamics I (8 lectures): Heat and work: mechanical work done by a gas system. The first principle of thermodynamics. Spontaneous expansion of a gas. Applications of the first law of thermodynamics. Adiabatic process and other thermodynamic processes of ideal gases. Ciclic thermodynamic processes. The Carnot cycle for an ideal gas. Thermal and refrigerator cycles. Outlines on other types of cycle (Stirling, Otto, , Diesel)
6. Thermodynamics II ( 10 lectures)
The second principle of thermodynamics: Clausius and Lord Kelvin terms. Reversible and irreversible cycles. Carnot’s theorem . Unequality of Clausius. Entropy of reversible and irreversibile processes. Entropy of an ideal gas. Entropy of a solid and liquid. Entropy and work, Gibb’s plane (T,S) and representation of thermodynamics processes. Outlines on Entropy and disorder.
1) Lecture’s notes
2) Fisica Generale, S. Rosati, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano
3) Fisica Generale: Meccanica e Termodinamica,
R.G.M. Caciuffo, S. Melone, Ed. Masson, Milano
4) Fisica I, D. Halliday, R. Resnick, K.S. Krane, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano
Planning of the course: The overall course is scheduled in three course units (modules) , 4 credits for each one, for a final assignment of 12 credits. The present third course unit or module is scheduled in the second period ( spring term) and it consists of 32 hours corresponding to 4 credits.
The present course unit includes: lectures, problem class and tests (continuous assessment). Extra hours are also available for tutorial or small group teaching .
Also the lectures are organised on the basis of an interactive approach to the class: collective discussion on particular topics, illustrations of attractive examples and frequent references to practical applications and to experiments.
All the course unit activity is strongly correlated to the parallel Laboratory of Mechanics course units.
Exam: Continuos assessment, consisting in a number of written and oral tests tperformed during the teaching period and used to monitor the student progress and contribute to the overall assessment of the three course units (final exam).