Learning outcomes of the course unit
To provide to the students of the first year the fundamental knowledgeof the general chemistry with a particular attention to the atomic, structure, to the chemical bond, to the states of the matter, to the termodinamic and kinetics features and to the acid-basic properties.
Course contents summary
FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR THEORY
Physical states of the matter. Mass and energy. Atomic theory and structure. Atomic masses. Isotopes. Mole and Avogadro's number. Electromagnetic radiation. Quantum theory. Wave-particle duality. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The Schroedinger equation. Atomic orbitals and quantum numbers. The "aufbau" principle. Electronic configuration of the elements. The periodic table and the main periodical properties.
The ionic and covalent bonds. Lewis structures. Electronegativity. The shapes of molecules. The VSEPR theory. The Valence Bond and the Molecular Orbital theories. The metallic bond. The oxidation number. Chemical reactions. Oxidation-reduction reactions.
THE GASEOUS STATE
General properties. Ideal and real gases. The ideal gas law. Kinetic molecular theory. Real gases.
THE LIQUID STATE
General properties, liquefaction of gases, surface tension, vapour pressure. Boiling point.
THE SOLID STATE
General properties. Ionic, covalent, molecular and metallic crystalline solids. X-ray diffraction. Crystal systems. Unit cells. Polymorphism and isomorphism.
Repulsive and attractive forces. Van der Waals forces. The hydrogen bond.
Properties of solutions. Composition of solutions. Solutions of non-electrolytes. Dissolution mechanism. Solubility. Ideal and real solutions. Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Cryoscopy and ebullioscopy, osmosis and osmotic pressure.
State functions. The first law. Work and heat. Enthalpy. Termochemistry and applications. Entropy. The second law. The third law.
Equilibrium constants. Law of mass action. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Phase diagram. The phase rule. Effects on the equilibrium constants ( Le Chatelier's principle). Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constant.
Acids and bases. The strength of acids and bases. Acidity constants. Polyprotic acids. Ionic product of water. pH and pOH. Calculation of pH. Hydrolysis. pH indicators. Buffer solutions. Amphoterism. Acid-base titration curves. Solubility product constant.
Rates of chemical reactions. Reaction rates and concentrations. Dependence of concentrations on time. First-order and second-order reactions. Activation energy. Effect of temperature on rection rates. Reaction mechanisms. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.
- R.H.Petrucci,W.S.Harwood,'Chimica Generale,Principi e Moderne Applicazioni',Ed.Piccin, Padova
- D. W. Oxtoby, N. H. Nachtrieb, 'Chimica Moderna', EDISES, Napoli
Written and oral examinations