Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide a basic knowledge of the morphological changes induced by diseases in organs, cells and molecules as a foundation for understanding etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis and therapy.
The program includes the systematic analysis of the pathological basis of diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, skeletal muscle, head & neck region, female genital tract and pregnancy, breast, skin, bone and soft tissues, male uro-genital system, kidney, heart, lung, pleura, biliary tract and endocrine organs.
The student will learn the role of Surgical Pathology in modern clinical medicine and the diagnostic techniques and applications currently in use, including cytology, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology applied to human tissues and cells, and electron microscopy.
The role of the pathologist in the diagnosis, prognosis and cure of diseases will be specifically emphasized in the Modules of Diagnostic Histopathology and Multidisciplinary Surgical Pathology (see).
The student will be asked to integrate the notions provided by the course with previous knowledge in anatomy, physiology and general pathology to the understanding of:
• nomenclature and classification criteria of diseases;
• causes, molecular and physio-pathological bases, and pathological features of relevant disorders;
• the basic histopathology of common diseseas;
• the elementary differential diagnostic work up of common diseases
• basic notions concerning clinical presentation, natural history, complications and therapy of relevant anatomo-clinical entities;.
• differential diagnosis of main organ and tissue pathologies and choice of appropriate diagnostic strategies.
At the end of the course, the student will be able to integrate the knowledge provided by disciplines to:
• give appropriate indications to perform a pathological analysis;
• fill out correctly a pathology request form and interpret a pathology report;
• communicate appropriately with professionals of other disciplines;
• approach correctly the diagnostic strategy of the main tissue and organ pathologies;
• identify and interpret clinical courses and complications of the different disorders;
• understand the clinical implications of a pathological diagnosis.
Basic notions of anatomy, physiology and general pathology.
Course contents summary
The program of the course includes the systematic analysis of the pathological basis of diseases of central and peripheral nervous system, skeletal muscle, head & neck region, female genital tract and pregnancy, breast, skin, bone and soft tissues, male uro-genital system, kidney, heart, lung, pleura, biliary tract and endocrine organs.
Basic information concerning the etiology, the molecular and physio-pathological bases of diseases, the clinical presentation, natural history and complications of the individual anatomo-clinical entities and organ pathology will be provided. The different methods available for macroscopic diagnosis and cytological and histological sampling will be discussed. The role of ancillary techniques such as immunostains, FISH, molecular biology and electron microscopy will also be examined. The significance of the study of pathological cells, tissues and molecules in current strategies of prevention, diagnosis , prognosis, prediction and cure will be specifically emphasized.
The Course will be integrated with practical lessons at the microscope (see Module of Diagnostic Histopathology) and the multi-disciplinary study of selected diseases chosen according to their clinical relevance or specific diagnostic approach (see Module of Multi-disciplinary Surgical Pathology).
See specific Modules.
Robbins & Cotran, Pathologic basis of diseases, Elsevier, 8° Ed. (specific chapters).
Rubin, Pathology, Mosby 2006 (specific chapters).
Lessons and seminars will be given during the course. Texts, diagrams, clinical examples and a rich apparatus of gross and microscopic images the student will be used to guide the student into the understanding of the different clinic-pathological entities.
Assessment methods and criteria
An oral interview will be used to assess the reaching of learning targets. Questions will be aimed to assess knowledge and understanding of basic notions and the ability to translate this information into appropriate actions and behaviors in the relevant clinical situations. The Course will be integrated with lessons at the microscope and multi-disciplinary seminars.