BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES (ANATOMY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To acquire good knowledge of the morphology and the structure of the organs and the apparatuses of the human body.
At the end of the course the student must demonstate he/she has learnt and understood the basic principles about the morphology and function of the cell and tissues
Course contents summary
The biomolecules and the supramolecular complexes. (only as preparatory, basic instruction for the comprehension of the specific subject)
The protoplasm: structure, energetics and functional aspects. The extracellular matrix: structure and function
The animal cell as chemical and physical environment.
The cell organelles and apparati: morphological and functional aspects. The cell cycle and the mechanisms of cell replication. Basic knowledge on staminal cells and differentiated cells. Cell populations.
Somatic cells: morphological and functional aspects of the differentiated cytotypes. Germinal cells.
Epithelial tissues. Organization and general structure of the mucosa of the digestive, respiratory, genital and urinary apparati. The skin. The liver lobule. The nephron. The blood and notes on hemopoiesis. Basic concepts on connective tissues proper, muscular and bone tissues. General organization of the nervous tissue.
Cellular physiology (ionic currents, membrane resting potential, action potentials, sinaptic transmission)
Part 2. Example of integrative physiology: muscular contraction (lab work with PC)
Part 3. Stress physiology: definitions, neuroendocrine systems recruited during stress response, coping strategies, stress related pathologies
Locomotor apparatus. Structural Organization (cytological and molecular) of the Bone, Cartilage and Muscular tissue. Generality on the bones and on the joints. Trunk: spinal column, vertebrae, joints and muscles of the chest.
Circulatory apparatus: the heart (outdoor config, in-house config, structure of the heart, and of the cardiac valves), auriculoventricular valves. Arteries (lay-out of the arteries, arteries of the pulmonary circulation and the general circulation). General organization of the lymphatic circulatory apparatus. Functional and molecular anatomy of the blood-forming organs (bone marrow) and lymphoid organs (thyme, spleen and lymph nodes).
Digestive apparatus. General organization: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach. Stomach, slim intestine, duodeno, crass intestine. The Liver and the Bilious Tracts. The Pancreas and the pancreatic tracts. The Peritoneum.
Respiratory apparatus. General Organization: Larynx, Trachea, Bronchuses and Bellows. The mechanics of the respiration.
Urinary apparatus. The macroscopic and the microscopic anatomy of the kideny. Molecular and microscopic anatomy of the nephron.
Endosecretory apparatus. General organization. Hypothalamus nucleuses and the neurosecretion. hypophysis. Thyroid and parathyroids. Adrenal glands. The testicles and the ovaries.
Eye: macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Functional anatomy of the vision: origin of the optic nerve.
Ear: macroscopic anatomy of the middle ear and the inside ear. Functional anatomy of the membrane labyrinth: origin of the vestibular and of acoustic nerve.
MARTINI F.H.: Anatomia Umana, EdiSES, Napoli
R. Berne e M. Levy. Principi di Fisiologia. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana. 2002
R. SCANDROGLIO: LA CELLULA; ED. SCIENTIFICHE OPPICI
R. SCANDROGLIO: I TESSUTI DEFINITIVI ED. SCIENTIFICHE OPPICI
Assessment methods and criteria
Written examen: multichoise test