Learning outcomes of the course unit
Acquisition of the knowledge on the mechanisms at the basis of cellular and tissue homeostasis, on transport and communication mechanisms and on resting metabolic rate.
Acquisition of the knowledge on the functions of the different organs and apparata, their dynamis integration and the general mechanisms of corntrol of their functions in rest conditions and during physical activity.
To know the main functional parameters in healthy individuals
Course contents summary
GENERAL PHYSIOLOGYThe cell membraneCell membrane structure; membrane proteins; transport mechanisms across membranes.Electrical properties of membranesElectrochemical gradients; passive and active ion channels; resting membrane potential; passive electrical properties of the membrane; action potential, genesis and conduction; classification of nerve fibers.Synaptic mechanismsElectrical and chemical synapses; neuromuscular transmission; synapses in the central nervous system, neurotransmitters; receptors.AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMAutonomic nervous system; vegetative reflexesMUSCLEMuscular tissue; organization of the skeletal muscular tissue, contraction; excitation-contraction coupling; types of contraction; muscle performance: single muscle fiber, motor unit.HEART AND BLOOD CIRCULATIONPhysical principles of hemodynamics; blood physical properties; properties of the heart muscle: autogeneration of action potentials, conduction of action potentials, excitability, contraction; electrophysiology of the heart muscle; mechanical events of the cardiac cycle; cardiac output; regulation of heart functions; circulation system; vasomotor regulation; arterial blood pressure; venous blood pressure and venous blood returnRESPIRATIONPhysical properties of gases; functional anatomy of the lungs; lung volumes and total lung capacity; mechanics of external respiration; lung compliance; respiratory resistances; Inhaled, alveolar and exhaled air; gases exchanges through the alveolo-capillary barrier; gases transport in the blood; blood flow through the lungs; ventilation-perfusion relationships; regulation of respiration.KIDNEYFunctional anatomy; blood flow through the kidney; glomerulus and glomerular filtration; tubular reabsorption and secretion; clearance; urinary constituents; regulation of the kidney functions; micturition.DIGESTIVE SYSTEMFunctional anatomy; hormonal and nervous control of digestive functions; motility of digestive tract: mastication, deglutition, gastric and intestinal motility; defecation; secretive functions: salivary, gastric, intestinal, pancreatic and bile; digestive and absorption processes.
Fisiologia dell¿uomo, edited by P.E. Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas, Casa EditriceEDI-ERMES, Milano
Assessment methods and criteria