MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to give to the students the knowledge about the general characteristics of the aetiological agents of the principal infectious diseases (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses) with particular interest in the infectious diseases of the obstetrical-gynaecological apparatus.
Bases of Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry.
Course contents summary
Bacteriology. General characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Morphological and structural aspects of the prokaryotic cell (wall, external membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, flagella, pili and phymbria, capsule and spore). Outline about the metabolism and the reproduction of bacteria. Pathogenic action of bacteria. Interaction bacteria-host. The resident bacterial population in the human organism. Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, esoenzymes, bacterial eso- and endotoxins).
Outline about the principles for the laboratory diagnosis of the main bacterial infections: direct methods (demonstration of bacteria and/or its constituents in the biological material); indirect methods (demonstration of a recent specific immune response). Outline about the main antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and chemotherapeutics) and determination of the in vitro susceptibility of bacteria: outline about the antibiogram. The main bacteria responsible for human infectious diseases. Staphylococci (S. aureus), Streptococci (pneumococcus, group B streptococci), Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Outline about Mycobacteria. Outline about anaerobic bacteria. Outline about Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections: Pseudomonas and S. aureus. Outline about the bacterial infections of obstetrical-gynaecological interest and involving the maternal-foetal district by: group B streptococci; Treponema pallidum. Outline about the infections by TORCH complex.
Mycology: General characteristics of fungi. The fungal cell and colony; yeasts and filamentous fungi. Outline about the infections by Candida albicans of the uro-genital district.
Parasitology: definition of parasite; interaction parasite-host; ways of penetration and elimination of the parasites. Presentation of some parasitic protozoa of medical interest: outline about the life cycles of: blood and tissues parasitic protozoa: Toxoplasma gondii, uro-genital parasitic protozoa: Trichomonas vaginalis.
Virology. Principal biological, morphological and structural characteristics of the viruses; definition of virus, viral sizes and shapes, chemical composition, nucleic acid types. The classification of the viruses (outline). The phases of the viral infection. Cultivation of the viruses: outline about the methods used.
Outline about the main methods used for the laboratory diagnosis of the viral infections: search for the virus or its constituents; demonstration of a specific humoral immune response. Ways of transmission of the viruses; ways of penetration and elimination of the viruses. Outline about the active and passive antiviral immunoprophylaxis. Outline about the infections by the principal sexually- and vertically-transmitted viruses: hepatitis B viruses (HBV), hepatitis C viruses (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus (HPV), herpetic viruses (Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex viruses, type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1; HSV-2)).
Outline about the main control and prevention systems of the bacterial, viral and parasitic infections in the hospital setting: the disinfection, the disinfestation and the sterilization. Outline about the principal biological samples and methods for the collection for the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections.
■ M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano
"Microbiologia Medica - gli agenti infettivi dell’uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio"
Batteriologia, Micologia, Virologia
■ De Carneri "Parassitologia Medica" Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Assessment methods and criteria