MICROBIOLOGY AND GENERAL PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Basic knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell injury and death, tissue response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, repair), genetic diseases,tumors. Knowledge of fundamentals of immune response and its
alterations, with a peculiar emphasis on transfusion medicine and subjects of
particular relevance for ostetricians. knowledge about the general
characteristics of the aetiological agents of the principal infectious diseases
(bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses) with particular interest in the infectious diseases
of the obstetrical-gynaecological apparatus. Attainment of terminological competence.
Bases of Biology, Biochemistry, Anatomy, and Physiology are required
Course contents summary
The subjects presented in the lectures will be:
A. PATHOLOGY. 1. Cell Death. Oncosis and
apoptosis. 2. The blood: composition and pathophysiology. Anemia. 3.
Inflammation:Events of acute inflammation; Exudate; Types of exudate;
Phagocytosis; Chronic inflammation and granulomas; Abscesses and ulcers;
Chemical mediators of inflammation; Systemic effects of inflammation; Tissue
repair. 4. Hemostasis:Phases and event of the hemostatic response;Hemorrhagic
disorders; Thrombosis and embolism; Infarction. 5. Genetic disorders: Mutations;
Single gene diseases; Examples ofautosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and
X-linked disorders; Multifactorial disorders (malformations); Cytogenetic disorders.
6. The diabetic syndrome. Gestational diabetes. 7. Tumors:Classification and
nomenclature; Benign and malignant tumors; Tumor etiology; Fundamentals in
molecular oncology; Invasivity and metastasis; Pathogenesis of neoplastic
diseases; Grading and staging. 8. Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and
cooperation. 9. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors.
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Processing and presentation of
exogenous and endogenous antigens. 10. Functional anatomy of the immune
response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary
reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. 11.
Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection. 12.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. The hemolytic disease of the newborn.
B. MICROBIOLOGY. 1. Bacteriology. General characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Morphological and
structural aspects of the prokaryotic cell (wall, external membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, flagella, pili and phymbria, capsule and spore). Basic information on the metabolism and the reproduction of bacteria. Pathogenic action of bacteria. Interaction bacteria-host. The resident bacterial population in the human organism. Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, esoenzymes, bacterial eso- and
endotoxins). Principles of laboratory diagnosis of bacterial infections: direct methods (demonstration of bacteria and/or its constituents in the biological material); indirect methods (demonstration of a recent specific immune response). The main antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and chemotherapeutics) and the determination of the in vitro susceptibility of bacteria: outline about the antibiogram. The main bacteria responsible for human infectious diseases. Staphylococci (S. aureus), Streptococci (pneumococcus, group B
streptococci), Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Outline about Mycobacteria. Outline about anaerobic bacteria. Outline about Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections: Pseudomonas and S. aureus. Outline about the bacterial infections of obstetrical-gynaecological interest and involving the
maternal-foetal district by: group B streptococci; Treponema pallidum. Outline about the infections by TORCH complex. 2. Mycology: General characteristics of fungi. The fungal cell and colony; yeasts
and filamentous fungi. Outline about the infections by Candida albicans of the urogenital district. 3. Parasitology: definition of parasite; interaction parasite-host; ways of penetration and elimination of the parasites. Presentation of some parasitic protozoa of medical interest: outline about the life cycles of: blood and tissues parasitic protozoa: Toxoplasma gondii, uro-genital parasitic protozoa: Trichomonas vaginalis. 4. Virology. Principal biological, morphological and structural characteristics of the viruses; definition of virus, viral sizes and shapes, chemical composition, nucleic acid types. The classification of the viruses (outline). The phases of the viral infection. Cultivation of the viruses: outline about the methods used. Outline about the main methods used for the laboratory diagnosis of the viral infections: search for the
Maier e Mariotti. Elementi di Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia. McGrawHill.
Bendinelli, Chezzi, Dettori, Manca, Morace, Polonelli, Tufano. Microbiologia Medica - gli agenti infettivi dell’uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio. Batteriologia, Micologia, Virologia.
Monduzzi Editore. Bologna.
De Carneri. Parassitologia Medica. CEA. Milano.
Oral lectures supported by images and slides
Assessment methods and criteria