GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objective of the course is to provide the students with:
- the fundamental concepts of chemistry, including stoichiometry; a necessity to prepare laboratory media and for the comprehension of analytical
- the basic knowledge of structure and function of the biological macromolecules.
Course contents summary
Elements and compounds. Sub-atomic particles. Atomic number, mass number, isotopes. Atomic structure. Electronic configuration of the elements.
Periodic table. Periodic trends in the chemical properties of the elements.
Chemical bonding: ionic bond; covalent bond (pure, polar, dative). Intermolecular bonding.
Atomic and molecular weight, gram atom, gram molecule; related exercises and stoichiometric calculations.
Inorganic chemical compounds: hydrurs, binary acids, oxides, anhydrides, peroxides, hydroxides, acids, neutral and acidic salts; formation reactions, reaction balancing, nomenclature.
Oxidation state and oxidation number; balancing ox-red reactions.
Chemical kinetics: rates of chemical reactions. The factors that affect chemical reaction rate: chemical nature of the reactants, concentration (order of a reaction), temperature and catalysts.
Chemical equilibrium: concept of dynamic equilibrium. The general expression of the equilibrium constant. Factors that affect the chemical equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle.
Solutions. Concentrations units: percent fraction w/w and w/v, molarity, molality. Preparation of solutions.
Colligative properties of solutions: boiling point elevation, freezing point depression; osmosis, osmotic pressure and osmolarity.
Acids and bases. Acid-base equilibria. Water ionization. Concept of pH. Calculating the pH of acid and base (strong and weak) solutions. Buffer solutions: properties and pH calculation.
Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons: nomenclature, physical properties and characteristic reactions.
Alcohols: nomenclature, physical properties, characteristic reactions. Formation of ethers.
Aldehydes and ketones: nomenclature, physical properties, characteristic reactions.
Carboxylic acids: nomenclature, physical properties, characteristic reactions.
Esters: nomenclature, formation reaction, basic hydrolysis. Amides, anhydrides, acid halides: structure and nomenclature.
Amines: structure and nomenclature, basicity, characteristic reactions. Stereoisomerism and optical activity: basic concepts.
M. Stefani, N. Taddei
Chimica Biochimica e Biologia Applicata