HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is designed to give the student the fundamental knowledge of the general anatomy with special emphasis on the locomotor and nervous systems.
Course contents summary
1. The cell, structural unit of all living organisms.
Structural aspects on light and electron microscopy of the cells and their organelles.
The human supracellular units, namely tissues, multi-tissue units and morpho-functional units. The most important units of measurement used in histology.
Stem and differentiated cells.
2. Epithelial tissues.
a) Covering epithelia: classification. Form and characteristics of epithelial cells.
b) Glandular epithelia: structure of the glands of the body.
3. Tropho-mechanical tissues.
a) Connective tissues: their three classes of components: cells, fibers and ground substance.
b) Adipose tissues: unilocular adipose tissue and multilocular adipose tissue.
c) Cartilage: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage.
d) Bone tissues: bone cells, bone matrix, type of bone, bone growth and remodelling.
e) Blood and lymph: serum, plasma and formed elements of blood.
4. Nervous tissue.
a) Nervous tissue of the central nervous system: neurons, cell body, dendrites and axon. Synaptic communication. Membrane potentials. White and grey matter. Glial cells.
b) Nervous tissue of the peripheral nervous system: nerve fibers, nerves and ganglia.
5. Muscle tissues.
a) Striated skeletal muscle tissue: organization of skeletal muscle fibers.
b) Striated cardiac muscle tissue: organization of cardiac muscle fibers.
c) Smooth muscle tissue: organization of smooth muscle fibers.
6. Human Embryology.
Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Fertilization and evolution of the zygote. Morphological aspects of the development: I, II, III and IV week of development.
Embryonic development of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
Structure of placenta.
Surface Anatomy: head and neck, thorax, abdomen, limbs, pelvis.
Overview of the Bones, Joints, Muscles.
Axial : Skull, Spine, Thorax. temporo-mandibular joint, intervertebral joints, joints of the ribs. Muscles of the head and neck, Muscles of the back, Muscles of the abdomen wall, Muscles of the pelvic floor.
The scapular girdle: bones, joints and muscles.
Superior Limb: Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Bones of the Hand. Joints: shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand. Muscles of the arm, Muscles of the wrist, Muscles of the fingers of the hand.
Inferior Limb: Pelvis, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Bones of the Foot. Joints: hip, knee, foot. Muscles of the pelvis, of the thigh, of the leg and the foot.
Overview of the anatomy of the Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Digestive and Urogenital systems, with functional correlations.
The Nervous System
Gross anatomy and structure of the spinal cord and the brain-stem. The cerebellum: structure, afferent and efferent pathways. The thalamus and hypothalamus. The basal ganglia. The brain cortex: structure and areas. The motor and sensory pathways. Neuromuscular spindles and the proprioceptive system. Anatomical basis of reflexes.
Overview of the autonomic nervous system.
Peripheral nervous System: the spinal nerves; the plexuses: cervical, brachial and lumbosacral (dorsal, ventral and collateral branches). The intercostal nerves. Dermatomery. Peripheral distribution of cranial nerves.
F.H. Martini, Anatomia Umana EdiSES (http://www.edises.it)
P. Govoni – Appunti e Tavole di Istologia – Ed. Libreria Universitaria Santa Croce.
P. Govoni – Appunti e Tavole di Embriologia– Ed. Libreria Universitaria Santa Croce.
P. Carinci et al.- CITOLOGIA & ISTOLOGIA UMANA; Idelson-Gnocchi
R.A. Bergman, A.K. Afifi, P.M. Heidger jr – ISTOLOGIA; EdiSES
L. Junqueira, Carneiro, Kelley - COMPENDIO DI ISTOLOGIA; Ed. Piccin