ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS - PART 2: ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course deals comprehensively with issues related to energy transformation processes and their impact on the environment. In particular, sustainability is considered with reference to several aspects: energy use, renewable energy, energy transformations, use of fossil fuels in combustion processes in heating systems and in thermal engines.
Attendance at the course requires the knowledge provided by the courses of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.
Course contents summary
General considerations. The energy balance of the planet. Energy sustainability. Energy consumption in the world. Technologies for the use of renewable sources. Solar Primary energy source. Issues related to solar concentration for medium and high temperature processes for heat and electricity generation. Photovoltaic solar cell. Biomass. Hydro power. Wind power.
Thermodynamic cycles, power generation and cogeneration, heat pumps, compression and absorption and their applications; trigeneration. Combustion processes. Fuels and their characteristics. Power output from steam plants, gas turbines and internal combustion engines (ICE): main emissions from stationary and mobile applications, and techniques for their reduction.
General considerations. The energy balance of the planet: natural and anthropogenic contributions. Energy sustainability: rationalization and use of Renewable Energy Sources. Energy consumption in the world: characteristics of primary energy sources; fossil fuels and renewable sources. Technologies for the use of renewable sources. Solar Primary energy source: availability of solar radiation, solar thermal collector without concentration: the basic technology and efficiency for ACS facilities, problems of heat storage in the short and long term, solar thermal collector, vacuum manifolds. Issues related to solar concentration for medium and high temperature processes for heat and electricity generation. Photovoltaic solar cell: generalities, technologies and features, analysis of various types of PV modules and their characteristics, the PV modules as building elements, considerations on the plants stand-alone and grid-connected. Non-technical issues associated with solar installations: costs, building regulations and planning, incentives.
Solar secondary energy sources. Biomass: the availability and characteristics of wood biomass from forest management, direct combustion, characteristics and management for anaerobic fermentation of biomass plants and animals, characteristics and use of biogas. Hydro power: resource availability, technological characteristics of the facilities and management issues, environmental compatibility. Wind resource: resource availability, technological characteristics of the plants, environmental compatibility.
Direct and inverse thermodynamic cycles, power generation and cogeneration, heat pumps, compression and absorption and their applications; trigeneration. Combustion processes: reactions, mechanisms of formation of pollutants, methods for estimating emissions. Fuels and their characteristics. Power output from steam plants, gas turbines and internal combustion engines (ICE): main emissions from stationary and mobile applications, and techniques for their reduction.
A.Gambarotta, A.Peretto, M.Bianchi, “Impatto Ambientale dei Sistemi Energetici”, Ed.Pitagora, Bologna, 2004
S.Turns, “An introduction to Combustion. Concepts and Applications”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996
K.Owen, T.Coley, "Automotive Fuels Reference Handbook", pubblicazioni SAE, 1995
A.Bisio, S.Boots, "Encyclopedia of energy technology and the environment", Wiley, 1995
P.Degobert, "Automobiles and Pollution", pubblicazioni SAE, 1995
E.Sassoon, C.Rapisarda Sassoon, "Management dell'Ambiente", Ed.Il Sole 24 ore, 1993
R.Vismara, "Ecologia Applicata", Hoepli, 1992
M.L.Davis, D.A.Cornwell, "Introduction to Environmental Engineering", McGraw-Hill Int.Ed., 1991
P.A.Vesilind, J.J.Peirce, R.Weiner, "Environmental Engineering", Butterworth Publishers, 1988
A.H.Lefebvre, "Gas Turbine Combustion", McGraw-Hill, 1983
G.Paccani, "L'inquinamento da autoveicoli", ESA editrice, 1979
R.Wilson, W.J.Jones, "Energia, Ecologia ed Ambiente", Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 1978
I.Glassman, "Combustion", Academic Press, 1977
J.B.Edwards, "Combustion: the formation and emission of trace species", Ann Arbor Science, 1974
Texts of the lectures are also available forstudents . It is suggested to consult magazines and Web sites listed from time to time.
Lectures and numerical examples on course subjects. Technical visits to plants and energetic systems, to after-treatment systems, and of instrumentation for the pollutant emissions measurements.
Assessment methods and criteria
Final examination is oral only.