Learning outcomes of the course unit
Basic knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell injury and death, tissue response to injury (inflammation, haemostasis, repair), genetic diseases, tumors. Comprehension of the fundamentals of immune response and its alterations, with a peculiar emphasis on transfusion medicine and on subjects of particular relevance for nursing. Attainment of terminological competence.
Bases of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are required.
Course contents summary
The subjects presented in the lectures will be: 1. Cell Death. Oncosis and apoptosis. 2. The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. 3. Inflammation: Events of acute inflammation; The exudate; Types of exudate; Phagocytosis; Chronic inflammation and granulomas; Abscesses and ulcers; Chemical mediators of inflammation; Systemic effects of inflammation; Tissue repair. 4. Haemostasis: Phases and event of the haemostatic response; Hemorrhagic disorders; Thrombosis and embolism; Infarction. 5. Genetic disorders: Mutations; Monogenic diseases: Examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; Multifactorial disorders (malformations, diabetes mellitus); Cytogenetic disorders. 6. Tumors: Classification and nomenclature; Benignand malignant tumors; Tumor etiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; Invasivity and metastasis; Pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging. 7. Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. 8. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction and its consequences. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Processing and presentation of exogenous and endogenous antigens. 9. Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. 10. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection. 11. Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice. Transfusional complications.
Maier and Mariotti. Elementi di Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia.
McGrawHill. Milan, 2009.
Most of the subjects treated in the lessons are included in this textbook (except immunohematology: learning material will be provided during the lectures).
Interactive oral lectures with detailed reference to the text and to material provided. Individual support.
Assessment methods and criteria