CHEMISTRY AND PROPAEDEUTIC BIOCHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
1. To be able to justify the correlation between atomic structure and the chemical properties of the elements, inorganic and organic compounds and of macromolecules of biological relevance.
2. To understand the fundamental principles that govern chemical reactivity in simple and complex macromolecules.
1. To understand the electronic structure of atoms, the properties of elements, the characteristics of chemical bonds in inorganic and organic compounds as well as of biologically relevant macromolecules.
2. To know the structure and the chemical properties of inorganic compounds (acids, bases and salts), organic compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and their functional derivatives, amines and heterocyclic compounds) and macromolecules of biological relevance (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids).
3. To understand the fundamental laws that regulate chemical reactivity and the kinetics, the dynamic (mass action) and the thermodynamics of reversible chemical reactions.
4. To understand and use, both qualitatively and quantitatively: a) the concept of chemical equilibrium with emphasis on the acid/base equilibrium in water (pH, buffers, hydrolysis), b) the solutions' colligate properties.
5. Capability to apply the principles that govern the chemical reactivity of inorganic and organic compounds to describe and justify a) the acid-base properties of molecules, b) the reactivity of organic compounds
RESULTS OF LEARNING:
1. Comprehension of the criteria regulating the electronic structure of the elements.
2. To be able to justify the structural features and the chemical properties of chemical bonds in inorganic and organic compounds and in macromolecules of biological interest.
3. To be able to describe the 3D structure of inorganic compounds (acids, bases and salts), organic compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and their functional derivatives, amines and heterocyclic compounds) and of macromolecules of biological relevance (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids).
4. To be able to discuss the chemical principles regulating chemical reactivity of the main classes of compounds, the kinetic, equilibrium properties and thermodynamics of chemical reactions.
5. To be able to explain and use the mathematical equations describing reversible chemical reactions in water solution: in particular the acid-base reactions (pH, buffer solutions) and the solutions' colligate properties.
6. To be able to apply the principles that modulate the reactivity of inorganic and organic compounds in order to describe the mechanistic aspects of a chemical reaction, in particular i) acid-base properties; ii) mechanisms of organic compounds reactions.
Course contents summary
- Atoms and molecules. The nucleus. Electromagnetic radiations. The electron. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals. Criteria to construct the electron configuration for each element.
- The periodic table of the elements. Periodic variation of the elements chemical-physical properties. Loss and gain of electrons: electronegativity. Electronic structure and chemical properties.
- Chemical bond: covalent, ionic and metallic.
- Hydrogen bond and its role for the structure and function of molecules. Van der Waals bond. Dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions and their consequences on the physical states of matter.
- Correlation between the oxidation state of the elements, their position in the periodic table and the properties of their compounds.
- Localized molecular orbitals. Description of the structure and of chemical properties of molecules using hybrid atomic orbitals and localized molecular orbitals. Basic concepts on hybridization involving "d" orbitals and the transition metals: complex ions.
GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
- Water solutions. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The colligative properties of water solutions.
- The Law of Conservation of Mass in chemical reactions.
- Chemical kinetics: rates of chemical reactions, the activation energy and the transition state theory.
- Chemical thermodynamics: heat, bond-energy. Entalpy. Spontaneity of a chemical reaction: entropy and free energy.
- Chemical equilibrium. Factors affecting chemical equilibrium. Correlation between free energy and equilibrium constant. Redox reactions and electrochemical potential.
- The ionization of water. pH: significance and range of variation. Acid-base equilibrium. The concept of conjugate acid-base systems. Buffers and the control of pH.
- Stoichiometric calculations. Balancing neutralization and redox chemical equations. Calculations based on chemical equations. Calculations applied to water solution reactions: concentration and dilution, pH.
- Molecular and structural formulas. Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups. The concept of substituent: the inductive and mesomeric effects of substituents. The molecular mechanisms of reaction.
- Geometrical isomerism. The chiral carbon atom and chirality of the molecules. Stereoisomerism, optical isomerism and optical activity
- Saturated and insaturated hydrocarbons
- Aromatic hydrocarbons
- Alcohols, phenols, thiols
- The carbonyl group: aldehydes and ketones. The carboxylic acids and related derivatives: esters, anhydrides, amides, acid halides
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds.
Of all classes of compounds it is necessary to know the nomenclature and the main chemical reactions including the associated molecular mechanism.
- Carbohydrates. Structure, properties and functions of the principal carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides.
- Lipids. Tryglicerides. Fats and oils. Phospholipids and glycolipids. Structural organization of lipids in water: micelles and lipid bilayer. Steroids: cholesterol and derivatives.
- Proteins. Aminoacids and the peptide bond. Difference between peptides and proteins. The different levels of the proteins structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure.
- Nucleic acids. Purinic and pyrimidinic bases. Nucleosides and nucleotides. Primary and secondary structure of RNA and DNA.
- Other compounds biologically active and not included in the previous classes.
Of all classes of compounds it is necessary to know the nomenclature the structure, the chemical and biochemical properties.
A) Chimica strutturistica e chimica generale
- A. Alberini, M. Avitabile, U. Besatti, V. Boido, F. Guerrireri, G. Liut, L. Masotti, A Spisni
Volume 1: CHIMICA GENERALE
B) Chimica organica
- H. Hart, L.E. Craine, D.J. Hart
Assessment methods and criteria
written test followed by an oral exam.