BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES II
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Theaim of the course is to give the student the opportunity to learn thebasic principle ofbiology and genetic in orfer to understand that thebiological research is the foundation of biomedical sciences.
Basic knowledges of chemistry and physiscs
Course contents summary
Organization and evolution of living matter
The chemistryoflife and the principle of emergent properties.Structure andfunctionsof biological macromolecules: carbohydrates,lipids, proteinsandnucleic acids.
Level of biological organization, and the relationships between structure and function
Diversityandunity of life: the levels of organization and the cell asthe basicuniyof life. The cellular theory: prokaryotic andeukaryoticcells,unicellular and multicellular organisms. The conceptofspecies. Evolutionary thinking: Darwin and theevolutionarytheory. Proof ofevolution: importance of taxonomy(classification of organisms),comparative anatomy anddevelopmentalbiology (comparative embriology)for the understanding ofevolution.The concepts of analogy, omology,ontogenesis and phylogenesis.
Origin of life:
early earthoxygenless atmosphere and abioticsynthesis ofbiomolecules. Evolutionof prokaryotic cell: autotroph andheterotrophcells. Evolution ofeukaryotic cell: endosymbiontic originofmitochondria and chloroplastsorganelles. The origin ofautotrophmetabolism and its consequence onthe evolution of life onearth.
Evolution and biology of the cell (with particolar emphasis on the relationships between structure and function)
Membranestructureand function. Membrane receptors. Theendoplasmicreticulum. TheGolgi apparatus. Lysosomes. Ribosomes.Mitochondria andchloroplasts.Nucleus: genetic materials, cromosomes.Cell reproduction:the eukaryoticcell cycle: Mitosis andmeiosis.
Thetheory of evolution: genetic variabilityand natural selection asthecore mechanisms of evolution. Sexualselection. Mechanisms ofevolutionand proof of evolution. Populationgenetic, the Hrdy-Weinbergequilibrium and the synthetic modern theoryofevolution(neodarwinism).Natural selection and mutation asprincipalmechanisms of evolution,genetic drift andmicroevolutionaryprocessess. Molecular evolution.Macroevolution:speciation (or theorigin of species). Phylogenesis ofVertebrates.Evolution of man.
Animal Biology( with particular emphasis to vertebrates)
Asexualandsexual reproduction. Evolution and adaptive significanceofsexuality.Meiosis and sexual life cycles. Gameteformation:spermatogenesis andoogenesis. Fertilisation and embryonicand fetaldevelopment (see conceptof omology, ontogenesis andphylogenesis ).Evoltion of neuroendocrinesystem:endocrineglands, hormones asmessenger, steroid and peptidehormonemechanisms of action.Relationship between hypotalamus, pituitaryandbody target cell and regulation of hormone production andrelease.Hormonal regulationof reproductive activity of vertebrateswithparticular attention toPrimates and hence human species.
Instinct,learning and memory. Neuroendocrine control ofbehavior. Geneticand evolution of behavior.Social behavior:aggression, sexual selectionand reproductivestrategies. Relationshipbetween cultural andbiological evolution.
Genetics: the study of mechanism of heredity of characters
Mendel’sexperimentalapproach: the discovery of the first(segregation)andsecond(independentassortment) law of heredity and the developmentofthe theory ofheredity. The test-cross. The concept of gene,allele,genotype andphenotype. Dominant, recessive alleles,incompletedominance andcodominant alleles. Multiple alleles.Pleiotropy.Epistasis. Polygenicinheritance. Sex linked genes andchromosomaldetermination of sex. Thechromosomal theory of inheritance.Geneticsignificance of mitosis andmeiosis.
The molecular basis of inheritance: the chemical nature of the gene.
Experimentalevidencethat DNA is the genetic material. The discoveryof themolecularstructure of DNA or the Watson and Crick doublehelix.DNAreplication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
How genes work: from gene to protein
ThemRNAand the genetic code. Transcription and translat
Solomon et al. - 'Fondamenti di biologia' - Edises
oppure Campbell 'Lineamenti di Biologia Zanichelli
Palanza P. e Parmigiani S. - 'Biologia e genetica del comportamento' - Libreria Santa Croce (Parma)
Palanza P e Parmigiani S. 'Percorso didattico di Biologia' Libreria Santa Croce (Parma))
Class lectures open toi debate
Student evaluation: written test followed by an oral examination