MEDICAL SEMEIOTICS AND VETERINARY CLINICAL METHODOLOGIES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Objectives of the course (preferably expressed in terms of learning outcomes and competences): The object of the course is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge for the clinical approach to the patient. The history, the general impression and the examination of the patient aim at investigating the signs that cause of the disorder in order to performe tha diagnosis. The student must be able to record the history, to examinate and elaborate the clinical signs.
Course contents summary
Definitions: hystorical view; procedures of the physical examination: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation, measurements, instruments and diagnostics. Sampling of urine, liquids, gastric and rumen contents, microbiological exams.
Scheme for a physical examination. History and the approach to the client and patient. Identification of the patient.
Present status: general impression and Objective Examination. Skeleton and constitution, nutritional conditions, level of consciousness and behaviour, locomation, coat and subcutaneous tissue, mucosae, lymphnodes; temperature.
Kidney and urinary tract.
Skin, hair and nails.
Definition of semeiology; brief history on the evolution of the semeiologic technique; direct or physical semeiological processes: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation, measurement, thermometry, polls, catheterizations, exploratory bites. indirect or instrumental semeiological processes: urine, feces, blood, transudate, exudate, gastric and ruminal juice, microbiological tests, allergy tests and serological tests.
Semiological test scheme. History: environmental, collective, individual, remote, proximate, physiological, pathological. Signaling and identification of the subject.
Examinations (present state): skeletal development and constitution; nutritional status and muscle tone, sensory status, attitudes, and distinguishing features; skin and subcutaneous connective tissue, mucosal membranes; lymphnodes, temperature, pulse, breathing, major organ functions .
Special Semiology: examination of the body systems in the species of veterinary interest.
Examination of the digestive system
Appetite, thirst, degeneration of taste; intake of food and beverages; alterations of mastication, swallowing disorders, rumination, belching, vomiting, defecation. Examination of the oral cavity: inspection of the labial (size and appearance of salivary flow, lesions of the lips, mobility of the lower jaw); examination of the buccal vestibule and mouth (temperature, salivary secretion, smell, feel, appearance); review the language. Examination of the teeth. Examination of the pharynx and esophagus. Examination of the abdomen in horses and small animals: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation. Examination of the perineum. Rectal examination in horses, cattles and dogs. Rhino-esophageal intubation in the horse; gastric intubation in small animals. Examination of stomachs of cattle: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the rumen; collection and examination of rumen content; e Evidence of diaphragmatic and peritoneal pain in cattle: compression, percussion with heavy hammer, and Kalchschmidt test. Examination of the intestine in cattle; intraperitoneal exploration in cattle; exploration endoruminoreticolare in cattle; rectal examination in cattle; survey rhino-esophageal in cattle; survey in the bovine rumen. Puncture of the abdomen (paracentesis) in the horse, in cattle, in small animals. Examination of the payment of the serous cavities: physical examination, chemical, microscopic, bacteriological. Stool examination: macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, bacteriological examination and culture, blood research. Examination of the liver: physical examination, functional tests, liver biopsy. Examination of the spleen.
Examination of the respiratory system
Semeiologic examination of the upper respiratory tract: examination of the nostrils and the nasal mucosa; examination of the breasts; examination of the larynx; provocation, characters and genesis of cough; examination of the trachea. Inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the chest; functional examination of the breath.
Examination of the cardiovascular system
Capillaries Arteries: inspection, palpation (arterial pulse), auscultation. Veins, swelling and increase in volume, decrease or disappearance; venous pulsations. Heart: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the heart region; outbreaks of auscultation, heart sounds and tones; extracardiac noise. Laboratory Tests of cardiovascular function: measurement of blood pressure, phonocardiographs, electrocardiography.
Examination of the blood and blood-forming organs. Blood-forming organs: lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and laboratory evaluation semeiologic of homeostasis.
Examination of the urinary tract
Supplement medical history. Direct physical examination: inspection, palpation, rectal examination. Functional examination: urine test chemical and physical blood tests, renal function tests.
Examination of the integumentary system. Direct physical examination
BIRCHARD S.J., SHERDING R.G.: Manuale di Clinica dei piccoli animali.
BISTNER and FORD: Handbook of veterinary procedures and emergency treatment.
CROW S.E., WALSHAW S.O.: Manuale di procedimenti clinici nel cane e nel gatto.
KELLY W. R.: Diagnostica clinica in Medicina Veterinaria
MESSIERI A., MORETTI B.: Semeiologia e Diagnostica Medica veterinaria
ROSEMBERGER G.: L'esame clinico del Bovino
UBALDI A., CORBELLA E., MONTANARI P.: Diagnostica chimico-clinica veterinaria
Assessment methods and criteria
Final examination with written questions