Learning outcomes of the course unit
The students have to acquire in-depth knowledge on the main aspects of etiology pathogenesis of diseases, particularly focusing on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tissue and cell damage and adaptation and cell death; the students have to know the cellular and molecular , mechanism which regulate the inflammatory and innate responses and tissue renewal and repair. The knowledge on the etiology, pathogenesis and physiopathology of the neoplastic diseases are also provided.
Propedeutics to: Pathological Anatomy I and II e Necropsy – Internal Medicine – Pathological Surgery and Radiology – Infectious Diseases – Ostetrics.
Propedeutics done: Microbiology and Immunology - Epidemiology, Physiology and Endocrinology.
Course contents summary
The etiology and pathogenesis of the diseases, cellular and molecular mechanisms of tissue and cell damage and adaptation and cell death. The defensive response to tissue damage: acute and
chronic inflammation and tssue renewal and repair. Etiology, pathogenesis and physiopathology of the neoplastic diseases.
Homeostasis, health and disease : basic concepts of causes and pathogenesis of the diseases
ETIOLOGY of Diseases: causes of pathology: 1) Infectious agents (the main mechanisms of injury by virus e bacteria); 2) Chemical agents (the main mechanisms of chemical injury; 3) Physical agents (radiation injury, thermal injuries, mechanical forces); 4) Nutritional deficiencies.
Cell and Tissue adaptation: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia.
Reversible and irreversible CELL INJURY: the models of cell damage by hypoxia and free radicals
Cellular and extracellular degenerations.
The cell death
-Necrosis: biochemical and morphologic aspects, types of necrosis;
-Apoptosis: causes (physiologic and pathologic apoptosis), morphologic and biochemical features and mechanisms.
Acute and chronic INFLAMMATION:
- General features: etiology, classification and development; Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation; Inflammatory cells; chemical mediators of inflammation Outcomes of acute inflammation; Cellular events and regulation;
-Primary chronic inflammation and granulomatous inflammation (causes and pathogenetic mechanisms);
-Acute Phase Reactions.
Tissue RENEWAL and REPAIR: regeneration; repair by healing; bone fracture repair and cutaneous wound healing; factors influencing wound healing.
-Definition, general features and nomenclature;
Molecular basis of cancer: oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, apoptosis genes;
Biology of the neoplastic cell ( transformation and progression, heterogeneity);
-Etiology and epidemiology: chemical, radiation and microbial carcinogenesis; Differential aspects between benign and malignant neoplasms and classification;
-Invasion and metastasis; immune response against neoplastic cells; paraneoplastic syndromes; diagnostic and prognostic markers of malignant neoplasms.
PRACTICAL ACTIVITY on histopathology:observation of microscopic features of cellular degenerations (cloudy swelling, hydropic and vacuolar degeneration, steatosis, intracellular protein accumulation disorders) and extracellular degenerations (amyloidosis, ialinosis, sclerosis) of types of acute and chronic inflammation, tissue features of neoplasia.
PREPARATORY BOOKS FOR EXAMINATION:
1) V Kumar, A. Abbas, N. Fausto: “Robbins e Cotran: Le basi patologiche delle malattie. Patologia Generale” (2006), Elsevier Italia, Srl, Milano.
2) McGavin M.D., Zachary J.F. Patologia generale veterinaria. (2008). Elsevier Masson, Milano.
3) G.M. Pontieri, M.A. Russo, L. Frati . Patologia Generale vol. I e II (2005) Piccin, Padova. Piccin, Padova.
4) M.U. Dianzani- I. Dianzani- U. Dianzani Istituzioni di patologia generale IV ed. (2004) UTET, Torino
1) Tizard I.R. Veterinary Immunology. Saunders (USA).
2) Dunlop R.H. Malbert C.H. Veterinary Pathophysiology. (2004) Blackwell Publishing, Ames, USA. 3) Marcato P.S. Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria (2002). Edagricole, Bologna.
4) G.B. Pier, J.B. Lyczak, L.M. Wetzler. Immunologia, infezione, immunità (2006). Piccin, Padova.
5) Marcato P.S. Anatomia e istologia patologica generale veterinaria. (2000) Eusculapio, Bologna
LESSONS AVAILABLE ON LINE
Classroom Lectures and practical activity
Assessment methods and criteria
The student may choice between:
1) Written examination
15 multichoice questions with a open explanations and a brief oral question for
2) Oral examination: 3 questions on theoretical contents of the three modules
1 question on practicals contents
Oral and written examinations consist in questions on both theoretical and practical contents of the Integrated Course.
A mid-term (“in itinere”) written examination can be performed on the contents of general pathology, oncology and immune-pathology before the end of the lessons and the first official exam’s session.
Then, the students must complete the examination on the contents of physiopathology at the official session within the examination’s session of September.
Self-evaluation tests simulating a written examination will be carried around the end of the course.