GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student should obtain knowledge of the theoretical fundamentals and of the application of the modern general and inorganic chemistry
Course contents summary
THE ATOMIC NATURE OF MATTER AND THE ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Atomic masses. Mole and Avogadro’s number. Isotopes. Electromagnetic radiation. Quantum theory. The Bohr atom. Wave-particle duality. The indeterminacy principle. The Schroedinger equation. Atomic orbitals and quantum numbers. The aufbau principle. Electronic configuration. The periodic table and the main periodical properties.
The ionic bond. The covalent bond. Homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Lewis structures. Electronegativity. The shapes of molecules, the VSEPR theory. The valence bond theory. The molecular orbital theory. The metallic bond. The hydrogen bond.
THE GASEOUS STATE
Properties. Pressure. Ideal gas. Boyle’s and Charles’s laws. Absolute temperature. The ideal gas law. The kinetic theory of gases. Graham’s law. Real gases. Intermolecular forces. Liquefaction, critical temperature.
THE SOLID STATE
Structure and properties. Crystalline solids and amorphous solids. Crystal lattices and unit cells. Symmetry. The crystal systems. Ionic, covalent, molecular and metallic crystals. Polymorphism. X-ray diffraction and crystal structure.
THE LIQUID STATE
Structure and properties. Surface tension. Evaporation. Vapor pressure. Boiling. Liquid crystals.
STATES OF THE MATTER AND PHASE TRANSITION
Phase diagrams for one- and two-components systems. Phase rule.
The composition of solutions. Intermolecular forces and solution enthalpy. Ideal solutions. Dissolution mechanism. Solubility; influence of temperature and pressure. Vapor pressure. Raoult’s law and deviations. Fractional distillation, azeotropic mixtures. Colligative properties; cryoscopy and ebullioscopy; osmosis and osmotic pressure. Colloidal sospensions.
State functions. The first law. Work and heat. Heat capacities. Enthalpy. Termochemistry and applications. Degradation of energy and disorder. Entropy. The second law. The third law. Gibbs free energy. Criteria for spontaneity.
Reactions and chemical equilibrium. Law of mass action. Equilibrium constants. Le Chatelier’s principle. Heterogeneous equilibria. The Gibbs free energy and the equilibrium constant. The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants.
ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND DISSOLUTION AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA
Acids and bases. Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis theories. The strength of acids and bases. Ionization constants. Polyprotic acids. Acid-base properties as a function of molecular structure. Ionic product of water. pH. Hydrolysis. Acid-base indicators. Acid-base titration curves. Buffer solutions. Amphoterism. Solubility product constant, common-ion effect.
Electrical conductivity. Electrolytic dissociation. Electrolysis: processes, Faraday’s laws, applications. Galvanic cells. Electrodes. Reduction potentials and applications. Corrosion and its prevention.
Rates of chemical reactions. Reaction rates and concentrations. Dependence of concentrations on time. First-order and second-order reactions. Activation energy. Effect of temperature on reaction rates. Reaction mechanisms. Catalysis.
Description of all the groups of the periodical table. Preparation and properties of the following elements and their main compounds: hydrogen, alkali and alkaline-earth metals, aluminum, carbon, silicon, tin, lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur, halogens, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, silver, zinc, mercury.
Inorganic nomenclature. Oxidation number. Reaction types: salification, exchange and redox reactions. Chemical equations balancing. Empirical and molecular formula; percentage of elements present in the compounds. Weight ratios among reagents and products; mole; limiting reagent; reaction yield. Solutions: composition, dilution and mixing. Chemical equivalent.
J. C. Kotz, P. M. Treichel, G. C. Weaver - “Chimica”, EdiSES, Napoli.
D. W. Oxtoby, H. P. Gillis, A. Campion - “Chimica moderna”, EdiSES, Napoli.
P. Atkins, L. Jones - “Principi di chimica”, Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
Lessons and exercises
Assessment methods and criteria
Written test and oral examination