Learning outcomes of the course unit
Mineralogy is designed to provide a deep knowledge of the main rocks minerals, includine physical and chemical proprieties, in order to acheive a clear identification and classification.
The course Chemistry must have successfully completed.
Course contents summary
Physical Properties of Minerals
Mineral science. Definition of mineral. Translational symmetry: onedimensional, didimensional (plane lattice) and tridimensional order (space lattice). Symmetry elements: rotation, reflection, inversion, rotation with inversion, rotation with reflection, rotation with translation and reflection with translation. Space groups. Crystal classes. Crystal sistems. Steno’s and Hauy’s laws. Miller indexing of faces and edges. The stereographic projection.
Crystalchemistry. The main elements of the earth crust. Cation radius and coordination polyedra. Pauling’s rules. Crystal structures of the main rocks minerals. Isomorphism. Compositional variation in minerals. Recalculation of chemical analyses..Phase diagrams of geological interest, with one, two. three components. Polymorphims.
Systematic description of rock-forming silicates.
Physical properties of minerals and relation with the structure.
Optical microscopy. Nature of light. Isotropic and anisotropic crystals. The polarizing microscope. The optical indicatrix and its orientation in the different crystal systems. Determination of the refractive index with the Becke line. Absorption and pleochroism. Interference colors. Extinction angle. Sign of elongation Observation of interference figures with convergent light. Determination of optic sign. Optical properties of important rock-forming minerals.
Bonatti S., Franzini M., Cristallografia mineralogica, BORINGHIERI, Torino.
Carobbi G., ( Mazzi F., Bernardini G.P.), Fondamenti di cristallografia e ottica cristallografica, USES, Firenze.
Carobbi G., ( Cipriani, C., Garavelli C.), Cristallografia chimica e mineralogia speciale, USES, Firenze.
Deer W.A., Howie R.A., Zussman J., Introduzione ai Minerali che costituiscono le Rocce, ZANICHELLI, Bologna..
Gottardi G., I minerali, BORINGHIERI, Torino.
Klein C., 2004. Mineralogia, Zanichelli, Bologna.
Mottana A., Crespi R., Liborio G., Minerali e rocce, MONDADORI, Milano.
Lessons and drill-lessons.
Assessment methods and criteria
Individual oral examination.