Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objective of the course is to provide students, through theoretical lectures and exercises in the classroom, knowledge relating to principles of chemical equilibrium, calculation of pH of acid, base and saline solutions and principles and applications of the main techniques of volumetric analysis. Furthermore, it provides students knowledge relating to principles and applications of the main instrumental analytical techniques
To sit the Analytical Chemistry exam the candidate must have taken the General Chemistry exam.
Course contents summary
Course Description. Introduction to analytical chemistry: qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Traditional methods and instrumental methods of analysis. Units of measure. Measurement error in Analytical Chemistry. Statistical analysis (e.g., linear regression analysis, relative standard deviation). Ways of expressing the concentration of solutions: molarity, percentage by weight and by volume, parts per million and related. Preparation of standard solutions by weight and by dilution. Conversion between the various methods of expressing concentration levels. Exercises. Principle of chemical equilibrium. Various types of equilibrium: auto-ionisation of water, solubility product, dissociation of acids and bases, compound equilibrium formation, oxidation-reduction equilibriums. Definition of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibriums. Equilibrium constant. Definition of acids and bases. Auto-ionisation and ionic product of water. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of strong bases and acids. Exercises. Definition of weak bases and acids. Dissociation constant. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of weak bases and acids. Exercises. Polyprotic acids. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of polybasic acids. Distribution curve of equilibrium species on the basis of pH. Exercises. Salt hydrolysis equilibriums formed by weak acid and strong base, strong acid and weak base, weak acid and base. Acid salt hydrolysis equilibriums. Calculation of pH of saline solutions. Exercises. Buffer solutions. Calculation of pH of buffer solutions. Buffering capacity. Exercises. Principles of volumetric analysis. Definition of primary standard. Direct and return titration. Final point and point of equivalence. Methods for determining point of equivalence. Titration of strong acids with strong bases and vice versa. Titration curve. Titration of weak acids with strong bases and vice versa. Titration curve. Acid-base titration indicators. Exercises. Oxidation-reduction titrations. Oxidation-reduction indicators. Titration curve. Exercises. Complexometric titrations. Titrations with EDTA. Conditional formation constant. Metallochromic indicators. Titration curve. Exercises. Precipitation titrations. Argentometric titrations: Mohr method, Volhard method, Fajans method. Titration curve. Exercises. Introduction to electrochemistry. Electrochemical reactions. Basic of potentiometry. Theory of spectrometry. Spectrophotometric methods. rotational, vibrational and electronic transitions. Absorption, emission, fluorescence. Lambert-Berr's law. Instruments for spectrophotometric analysis: sources, monochromators and detectors. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry:principles and instrumentation. Hollow cathode lamp.Flame and graphite furnace atomizer. Applications. UV-Vis spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation and applications in qualitative and quantitative analysis. IR spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation and applications in pharmaceutical analysis. Chromatographic methods. General principles and theory of chromatographic separation. Fundamental parameters in chromatography. Liquid chromatography (LC). Stationary and mobile phase: kind of phases and chemical-physical characteristics. Normal and reversed phased liquid chromatography. Method of gradient separation. Adsorption chromatography, partition chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography. Column liquid chromatography: instrumentation, operational technique and application.High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): theoretical principles and classification. Instrumentation, operational technique. Sample treatment. Qualitative and quantitative analysis. Gas-chromatography (GC): theoretical principles. Gas-chromatographic techniques cl
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The final oral written exam focuses on all of the topics included in the course syllabus. The student must demonstrate that he/she has understood the fundamental concepts of each topic and that he/she is able to apply them.