ELEMENTS OF WATER GEOCHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to provide the basic knowledge on the analytical methods and processes that define the chemical and isotopic compositions of the natural waters.
Course contents summary
Sampling methods of the groundwaters. The physical-chemical parameters: their meaning and determination (equipment description). The determination of the dissolved ions: the analytical methods (ion chromatography, atomic adsorption, ICP-OES, ICP-MS), the principles, the equipments and the practice. The hydrologic cycle. Composition and classification of the waters. Equilibria in aqueous solutions. The solubility of minerals and rocks (carbonate, silicate). Redox processes. Ion exchange processes (exchange coefficients, composition of the exchanger). Hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of natural waters. Salt waters and evaporative concentration. Speciation program for waters. The geothermal waters: composition and distribution in a geothermal field. The alteration minerals. The geothermometers.: the silica geothermometers, the Na/K geothermometer and the Giggenbach geothermometer.
APPELO, C.A.J. & POSTMA, D. 1996. Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution.
CLARK, I. & FRITZ, P. 1997. Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology. Lewis
Publishers, Boca Raton.
DREVER, J.I. 1997. The Geochemistry of Natural Waters: Surface and Groundwater
Environments 3rd edn. Prentice Hall.
PARKHURST, D.L. & APPELO, C.A.J. 1999. User’s guide to PHREEQC (version 2)-
A computer program for speciation, batch reaction, one-dimensional transport and inverse
geochemical calculations. Water Resources Investigations Report, 95-4259. US
VENTURELLI, G., 2003. Acque, minerali ed ambiente — Fondamenti di geochimica dei
processi di bassa temperatura. Pitagora Editrice, Bologna.