Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course means to supply the foundations of the cell and its components, the formations and organization of tissues. Acquisitions of the anatomical and functional knowledge of the organs and apparata of the human organism and to know the main functional parameters in healthy individuals.
Course contents summary
aims to teach to students the basic knowledge of the cell and its components (plasma membrane, cytoplasm, Golgi's apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitocondria, nucleus), the cell cycle, the stem cells, the processes involved in cell differentiation, the formation and organisation of tissuses (epithelial, connective, glands, nervous and muscolar).
Organization of human body: terminology and body plans. Concept of organ, apparatus and system. Locomotion apparatus: general characteristics and classification of bones, joint and muscles. Blood and lymphatic vascular apparata: morphology and structure of heart. Structure of arteries, veins and blood capillaries. General characteristics of pulmonary and systemic circulation. General characteristics of lymphatic circulation and lymphopoietic organs (lymph nodes, spleen, etc.). Digestive system: morphology and structure of oral cavity, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Associated glands: liver, pancreas. The peritoneum. Respiratory system: morphology and structure of nose cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. The pleura. Urinary system: morphology and structure of kidney and urinary tract. Ovarian cycle. Description of uterine tubes, uterus. Endocrine apparatus: general characteristics of structural organization of endocrine glands (thyroid, parathyroid, hypophysis, epiphys, adrenal glands, thymus, Langerhans islets). Nervous system: organization of central nervous system and its components (spinal cord, encephalic trunk, cerebellum, diencephalon and telencephalon). Main ways of general sensitivity and of motor system. General organization of peripheral and autonomic nervous system.
The cell membrane
Cell membrane structure; membrane proteins; transport mechanisms across membranes.
Electrical properties of membranes
Electrochemical gradients; passive and active ion channels; resting membrane potential; passive electrical properties of the membrane; action potential, genesis and conduction; classification of nerve fibers.
Electrical and chemical synapses; neuromuscular transmission; synapses in the central nervous system, neurotransmitters; receptors.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Autonomic nervous system; vegetative reflexes
Muscular tissue; organization of the skeletal muscular tissue, contraction; excitation-contraction coupling; types of contraction; muscle performance: single muscle fiber, motor unit.
HEART AND BLOOD CIRCULATION
Physical principles of hemodynamics; blood physical properties; properties of the heart muscle: autogeneration of action potentials, conduction of action potentials, excitability, contraction; electrophysiology of the heart muscle; mechanical events of the cardiac cycle; cardiac output; regulation of heart functions; circulation system; vasomotor regulation; arterial blood pressure; venous blood pressure and venous blood return
Physical properties of gases; functional anatomy of the lungs; lung volumes and total lung capacity; mechanics of external respiration; lung compliance; respiratory resistances; Inhaled, alveolar and exhaled air; gases exchanges through the alveolo-capillary barrier; gases transport in the blood; blood flow through the lungs; ventilation-perfusion relationships; regulation of respiration.
Functional anatomy; blood flow through the kidney; glomerulus and glomerular filtration; tubular reabsorption and secretion; clearance; urinary constituents; regulation of the kidney functions; micturition.
Functional anatomy; hormonal and nervous control of digestive functions; motility of digestive tract: mastication, deglutition, gastric and intestinal motility; defecation; secretive functions: salivary, gastric,
Martini/Timmons/Tallitsch: 'ANATOMIA UMANA', EdiSES, Napoli.
Renato Scandroglio: La cellula. Edizioni Santa Croce, Parma.
Renato Scandroglio. I tessuti definitivi. Santa Croce Edizioni, Parma.
Istologia di Monesi. Piccin Nuova Libraria, Padova.
Fisiologia dell’uomo, edited by P.E. Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas, Casa Editrice EDI-ERMES, Milano