Learning outcomes of the course unit
Basic knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell injury and death, tissue response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, repair), genetic diseases, tumors. Knowledge of fundamentals of immune response and its alterations, with a peculiar emphasis on transfusion medicine and on subjects of particular relevance for ostetricians. Attainment of terminological competence.
Bases of Biology, Biochemistry, Anatomy, and Physiology are required
Course contents summary
The subjects presented in the lectures will be: 1. Cell Death. Oncosis and apoptosis. 2. The blood: composition and pathophysiology. Anemia. 3. Inflammation: Events of acute inflammation; Exudate; Types of exudate; Phagocytosis; Chronic inflammation and granulomas; Abscesses and ulcers; Chemical mediators of inflammation; Systemic effects of inflammation; Tissue repair. 4. Hemostasis: Phases and event of the hemostatic response; Hemorrhagic disorders; Thrombosis and embolism; Infarction. 5. Genetic disorders: Mutations; Single gene diseases; Examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; Multifactorial disorders (malformations); Cytogenetic disorders. 6. The diabetic syndrome. Gestational diabetes. 7. Tumors: Classification and nomenclature; Benign and malignant tumors; Tumor etiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; Invasivity and metastasis; Pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases; Grading and staging. 8. Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. 9. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Processing and presentation of exogenous and endogenous antigens. 10. Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. 11. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection. 12. Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. The hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Maier and Mariotti "Elementi di Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia" McGraw Hill, Milan, 2009
Lectures are supported by audio-visual aids available for students.