Learning outcomes of the course unit
The main objective of the course is to provide the students with the essential notions on the structure and function of the complex biomolecules. Of these molecules the student is required to know the fundamental metabolic pathways and regulation.
Course contents summary
Nucleic acids: the sugar and the base components of nucleosides and nucleotides. Nucleosides and nucleotides. Structure and fundamental properties of RNA and DNA.
Amino acids and proteins: general structure and classification of the 20 amino acids that occur in proteins. Acid-base behaviour of amino acids; isoelectric point. Peptide bond. The different levels of protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
Structure and function of myoglobin and hemoglobin.
Enzymes. Enzymatic kinetics, Michaelis-Menten constant. Classification of enzymes. Coenzymes, isoenzymes, competitive and non-competitive inhibition.
Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids: structure and properties.
Structure and function of the biological membranes.
General principles of bioenergetics.
Carbohydrates: structure and properties of the most important monosaccharides (glucose, fructose), disaccharides (maltose, lactose, saccarose) and polysaccharides. Chiral properties.
Introduction to the metabolism: basic concepts of catabolism and anabolism.
Glucidic metabolism. Digestion of carbohydrates. Glycolysis. Synthesis and catabolism of glycogen. The pentose cycle. The Krebs cycle.
Lipid metabolism. Digestion of lipids. Beta oxidation of the fatty acids. Production of ketonic bodies. Biosynthesis of fatty acids. Structure and function of cholesterol.
Amino acids metabolism: digestion of proteins and absorption of amino acids. Essential amino acids. Fundamental reactions of the amine group: deamination and transamination. Metabolic pathway of ammonia.
Communication between cells: hormones and signal transduction.
J.W. Baynes, M.H. Dominiczak
Biochimica per le discipline biomediche
Casa Ed. Ambrosiana