Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course propose to furnish the knowledge of the human organization in its morphologic and physiological components with particular close examination to the topographical anatomy and microstructure
Course contents summary
Head, neck, trunk and limbs: ranking of bones, joints, ligaments and muscles
Cardiovascular system: heart, vessels of the small and great circulation
Digestive system: macro-microscopic anatomy of the organs of the alimentary tract and attached glands.
Respiratory system: trachea, bronchial tree, lungs, pleurae
Genito-urinary tract: macro-microscopic anatomy of the kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra, male and female reproductive system
Endocrine system: macro-microscopic anatomy of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, prostate, mammary gland
Lymphnodes and spleen
Generality on the central and peripheral nervous system.
1. The cell, structural unit of all living organisms.
Structural aspects on light and electron microscopy of the cells and their organelles.
The human supracellular units, namely tissues, multi-tissue units and morpho-functional units. The most important units of measurement used in histology.
Stem and differentiated cells.
2. Epithelial tissues.
a) Covering epithelia: classification. Form and characteristics of epithelial cells.
b) Glandular epithelia: structure of the glands of the body.
3. Tropho-mechanical tissues.
a) Connective tissues: their three classes of components: cells, fibers and ground substance.
b) Adipose tissues: unilocular adipose tissue and multilocular adipose tissue.
c) Cartilage: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage.
d) Bone tissues: bone cells, bone matrix, type of bone, bone growth and remodelling.
e) Blood and lymph: serum, plasma and formed elements of blood.
4. Nervous tissue.
a) Nervous tissue of the central nervous system: neurons, cell body, dendrites and axon. Synaptic communication. Membrane potentials. White and grey matter. Glial cells.
b) Nervous tissue of the peripheral nervous system: nerve fibers, nerves and ganglia.
5. Muscle tissues.
a) Striated skeletal muscle tissue: organization of skeletal muscle fibers.
b) Striated cardiac muscle tissue: organization of cardiac muscle fibers.
c) Smooth muscle tissue: organization of smooth muscle fibers.
6. Human Embryology.
Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Fertilization and evolution of the zygote. Morphological aspects of the development: I, II, III and IV week of development.
Embryonic development of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
Structure of placenta.
1)Physiology of the central nervous system:
- Basic anatomy and functional properties of neurons.
-Synapses and receptors.
-Sensory organs and receptors.
-Organization of the somatosensory system.
-Organization of the motor system.
-Organization of motor and somatosensory cortices. Somatotopy.
2) Physiology of the cardiovascular system:
- Miocardial properties: rhythm, conduction, excitability, contraction.
- Heart electrophysiology. Ionic theories of resting and action potentials.
- Heart mechanics and the cardiac cycle.
- Cardiac output.
- Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of heart activity.
- The vascular system.
- Blood pressure
3) Physiology of the respiratory apparatus:
- Chest and respiration muscles.
- Lung volumes and capacities.
- Mechanics of breathing.
- Blood-tissue gas exchange in the lung and in peripheral tissues.
- Blood transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
4) Physiology of Renal Function:
- The kidney: structural and functional properties. Kidney vascularization.
- Glomerular filtration.
- Tubular functions.
- Regulation of osmolarity and volume of the body fluids
1. P. Govoni – Appunti e Tavole di Istologia – Ed. Libreria Universitaria Santa Croce.
2. P. Govoni – Appunti e Tavole di Embriologia– Ed. Libreria Universitaria Santa Croce.
3. P. Carinci et al.- CITOLOGIA & ISTOLOGIA UMANA; Idelson-Gnocchi
4. R.A. Bergman, A.K. Afifi, P.M. Heidger jr – ISTOLOGIA; EdiSES
5. L. Junqueira, Carneiro, Kelley - COMPENDIO DI ISTOLOGIA; Ed. Piccin
6 -Di Prampero – Fisiologia dell’Uomo. Edi-Ermes.
7 -F.H. Martini, Anatomia Umana EdiSES (http://www.edises.it)