ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
For students who during the course have carried out the graphic designs required in the course of Disegno dell’Architettura e Geometria Descrittiva and Disegno Digitale, as well as having successfully sat for the ex tempore exams effected in the course of the year, the examination will consist of assessing all plates produced during the year and the final work assigned in the scope of the didactic module of Disegno dell’Architettura e Geometria Descrittiva.
The students who do not sit or do not pass the ex tempore exams set for the individual courses, must undergo a written test in the specific discipline to be able to sit the exam.
Presentation of the designs for the examination
All the works produced during the year must be submitted at the examination and in the module of Disegno dell’Architettura e Geometria Descrittiva e Disegno Digitale.
All design works in A3 format must be bound in a single file, in which there is to be included a cover page, containing all the descriptive information of the course.
Colour photocopies of the reductions in A3 of the plates relating to the end of course exercises realised in A1 format must be included in this file.
The final plates in A1 or A2 format, the bound album of the exercises of the course Disegno dell’Architettura e Geometria Descrittiva and a CD (with cover) containing the raster files and the vector files, in the case where the final plates have been created using computerized drawing instruments, must also be submitted.
The material must be delivered at the beginning of the roll-call for the examination, for which registration of each individual student is compulsory. Students who have not effected the aforesaid registration will not be accepted.
The delivery of materials in bulk form, rolled, incomplete or without a name will not be accepted.
Course contents summary
The course will develop through theoretical lectures the content of which is essentially composed of themes of Descriptive Geometry, in order to introduce the different design modalities, by which it is possible to develop designs. The aim is also to render uniform the knowledge connected to design from students coming from different secondary and advanced school didactic backgrounds.
Once the main notions addressing the different methods of representation have been learnt, we will look at the design of typical architectural themes in the different scales of representation (representation of the territory, of the city, of the building structures and of architecture, up to executive scales) to enable the students to express graphically the contents of successive courses which are based on the man-made renderings in the field of construction.
In order to allow a continuous and progressive learning of the systems of representation, there will be parallel exercises consisting of drawing up graphic plates which will be constantly corrected, and whose themes will follow exactly those of the lectures, to ascertain the learning of representation methods.
In detail, the lectures will be organised around the following subject-matter:
- The main graphic constructions of the plane: tangents, regular, spiral and conical polygons.
- Fundamental elements of plane geometry. Fundamental operations: designs and sections. Unsuitable elements.
- Perspective and homologous elements: centre, axes, couples of corresponding bodies.
-Types of homology: perspective – affinity – similitude (homotypy) – transfer.
- Orthogonal designs: references to the historical origins of the method.
- Representation of the fundamental geometrical bodies (point, straight line, plane).
- Conditions of appearance, parallelism and orthogonality.
-The main lines of the plane: horizontal, vertical, of maximum angle of inclination.
- Points, lines and planes in special positions.
- Spreading-out flat special and generics planes. True size of plane figures.
- Orthogonal projections: measurement problems – distance of one point from a plane, measuring angles. Intersections between line and plane, between solid and plane.
- Dimensioned Projections: basic concepts – maximum angle of inclination lines, level lines – conditions of belonging, orthogonality, parallelism – metric problems. Dimensioned plane, level curve plane.
- Axonometric Projections: Pohlke’s theorem.
- Orthogonal axonometry (isometric, dimetric, trimetric).
- Oblique axonometry (non-deformed elevation – isometric and dimetric cavalier – non-deformed layout – military isometric and diametric).
- Representations of point, line and plane.
- Geometric conditions of belonging, parallelism.
- Line/solid, line/plane intersection.
- Central or perspective projection: theoretical outlines and terminology.
- Central Perspective.
- Accidental Perspective.
- Rational Perspective.
- Theory of shadows: Outlines of theory and terminology.
- Type of light sources: point-like and parallel.
- Shadows in orthogonal projection: point, line, plane figure, solid, architectural elements.
- Shadows in Axonometry: point, line, front-lighted solid, lateral, rear.
- Shadows in Perspective: solid with front-, side- and rear lighting.
- Architectural design: UNI formats - conventional line types and thicknesses - from the project in general to the executive project: organisation of the designs, correlation, headers – scale of representation and finality of the same - territorial framework - general planimetry - plans - perspectives - sections - details - methods of dimensioning - legends &n
- M. Bocconcino, A. Osello, C. Vernizzi: Disegno e Geometria, series “Il Disegno e l’Ingegnere”, Levrotto and Bella, Turin, 2006.
- G. Ceiner: Teoria delle Ombre, series “Il Disegno e l’Ingegnere”, Levrotto and Bella, Turin, 1991.
- Cesare Cundari, Il Disegno. Ragioni. Fondamenti. Applicazioni., Edizioni Kappa, Rome, 2006.
- M. Docci: Manuale di Disegno Architettonico, Editori Laterza, Bari, 1999.
- Michel a Rossi, Il segno e la forma – grammatica grafica per l’architettura, Quaderni per la Didattica e la Ricerca della Facoltà di Architettura, DRR 01, Mattioli, Fidenza, 2006.
Eventual in-depth bibliography
- B. Aterini: Introduzione ai metodi di rappresentazione delle geometria descrittiva, Alinea Editrice, Florence, 1997.
- M. Docci, D. Maestri, Scienza del Disegno, Edizioni Kappa, Rome, 2003.
- R. Migliari: Geometria dei Modelli, Edizioni Kappa, Rome, 2003.
General reference texts
- Adolf Loos, Parole nel vuoto, Adelphi, 2005.
- Le Corbusier, Verso un’architettura, Longanesi, 1966.
In depth texts on the contents of research of design
- E. Panofsky, La prospettiva come forma simbolica, Feltrinelli, Milan, 1961.
- P. Giandebiaggi, Il disegno dell’utopia, Ricerche di rappresentazione e rilievo, Mattioli, 2003.
- C. Vernizzi, Parma e la Via Emilia, Ricerche di rappresentazione e rilievo, Mattioli, 2004.
- M. Rossi, Strade d’acqua – dal rilievo del territorio al disegno del paesaggio, Ricerche di rappresentazione e rilievo, Mattioli, 2004.
- Sgrosso, De Rosa, Giordano, La geometria dell’immagine – Storia dei metodi di rappresentazione, UTET, Milan, 2002.
- A. Zerbi, Dalla misura al modello digitale, Ricerche di rappresentazione e rilievo, Mattioli, 2006.
The exam for the course is the only one for the Laboratory of Representation and is, therefore, integrated with the module of Digital Design.