Learning outcomes of the course unit
Students have to know basic technical aspects related to the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by relevant etiologic agents of medical interest.
Course contents summary
Normal flora in humans
General characters (morphology, cell structures, notes on metabolism), pathogenicity and main diagnostic aspects related to the following human bacterial pathogens:
- Staphylococcus aureus and other coagulase-negative Staphylococci
- Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae and Enterococci
- Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae
- Enteric pathogens: Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic and enterohoemorragic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp. and Vibrio cholerae.
- Corynebacterium diphtheriae
- Mycobacterium spp.
- Anaerobes: Bacteroides spp., Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium spp., Clostridium spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., non spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella spp. and Bordetella pertussis
Histopathologic, cultural and serologic approaches for the laboratory diagnosis of
- Superficial mycoses
- Cutaneous mycoses
- Subcutaneous mycoses
- Deep and systemic mycoses
Introduction to Medical Parasitology. The parasitology laboratory: dedicated rooms, instruments, reagents. Technical procedure manuals and alphabetical list of diagnostic parasitology tests.
Guidelines for parasitology laboratory test request.
Principles and methods for the laboratory diagnosis of infections by parasitic protozoa:
a - specimen collection from patients, specimen handling and transportation,
b - detection and demonstration of parasites in appropriate samples obtained from patients,
c – detection and demonstration of specific immune response against parasitic protozoa of medical interest.
Appropriate specimens and procedures for the laboratory diagnosis of infections by main intestinal and genitourinary parasitic protozoa of medical interest: host-associated amebae (Entamoeba histolytica), ciliates (Balantidium coli), coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Isospora), flagellates (Dientamoeba, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis).
Appropriate specimens and procedures for the laboratory diagnosis of infections by main blood and tissue parasitic protozoa of medical interest: free-living amebae (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria), hemoflagellates (Leishmania, Trypanosoma), human malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii.
Serologic, molecular and cultural fundamentals for laboratory diagnosis of:
Viral infections of nervous system
Viral infections of oral cavity
Viral infections of the eye
Viral infections of the ear
Viral infections of respiratory tract
Viral infections of cardio-vascular system
Viral infections of gastrointestinal tract
Viral infections of genito-urinary tract
Congenital, perinatal and postnatal viral infections
Viral infections of liver and biliary tract
Viral infections of immune system
Viral infections of erythrocytes and erythroid precursors
Exanthematic viral infections
Viral infections of muscle and joints
Viral infections in immunocompromised host
Viral infections from oncogenic viruses
M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano.
MICROBIOLOGIA MEDICA. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio. Monduzzi Editore
I. De Carneri - Parassitologia Generale ed Umana, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
Assessment methods and criteria
Prof. Stefania Conti
Dr. Silvia Covan
Dr. Flora De Conto