ORGANIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objective is to provide the basic concepts for the comprehensionof: 1) origin, reactions, transport of chemicals in the atmosphere, water, soil, as well as their impact on human helth and natural environment. 2) new industrial and research approaches for the synthesis of chemicals through greener industrial processes. 3) reference legislation frame concerning waste management and "chemical reading" of D.Lgs. 334/99, D. Lgs. 152/06 and 81/08
Course contents summary
- concept and definition of pollutant
- molecular structure/physical-chemical properties relationship, Kow, Henry's Low
- relationship between chemical structure and reactivity:short account on basic thermodynamic and kinetic concepts, abiotic transformation and degradation processes: oxidation, hydrolysis, phototransformation and photodegradation, estimation of photolysis rate constant or phototransformation rate constant, examples of calculation.
- petroleum hydrocarbons: chemical nature of petroleum and its average composition, the industrial industry of petroleum. Hydrocarbons in the environment: dispersion, evaporation, dissolution, photooxidation, microbial transformation.
- polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxines: nomenclature, origin, their physical chemical properties, environmental distribution and behaviour, toxicity, I-TEF.
- synthetic polymers: classification synthetic methods, environmental characteristics of synthetic polymers; combustion, biodegradation, photodegradation, recycling
- pesticides: chemical structure and synthesis of chlorinated pesticides, organophosphates, carbamates, pyretroids. Physical chemical properties oif pesticides, their environmental properties, toxicity, bioaccumulation ecological effects.
- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: thei chemical nature, origin, environmental behaviour and fate
- soaps and detergents: classification and their synthesis, tha active cleaning agents, builders, bleachers. Toxicity, biodegradation, bioaccumulation
- chemistry of natural waters and thei pollution, BOD, COD
- atmospheric chemistry and pollution: vertical profile of atmospheric temperature nd pressure, the natural cycle of ozone. CFCs and other alogenated hydrocarbons: and their effects on ozone depletion, ODP, GWP
- Soil contamination soil/water partition coefficient, soil/organism partition coefficient
- distribution of pollutants in the environment: two-phase partition processes in the environment, the fugacity concept, fugacity and distribution of chemicals, the fugacity capacity factor (Z), chemical distribution in a model environment, example of calculations.
- basic principles of green chemistry, comparison between classical and low impact industrial processes, the ideal reaction, atom economy, the environmental factor (E), use an selection criteria of a solvent
- chemical aspects on waste management whithin Decree 152/06, chemical aspects of D. Lgs. 334/99 and 81/08.
1) "Chimica Ambientale" second italian Ed., C. Baird, M. Cann, Ed.: Zanichelli
2) "Chimica Ambientale", S. E. Manahn, Italian Edition by L. Zoccolillo, Ed.: Piccin
3) "Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry" Des W. Connell; Lewis Publishers, N.Y. 1997
Teaching method: frontal lectures, integrated with seminars, organized autonomously and exposed by students focused on topics of the theoretical parts of the program
Evaluation criteria: the ability of the candidates to autonomously accede to primary literature souces concerning a specific environmental issue and frame it in a critical manner whithin the topics of the course will be evaluated