Learning outcomes of the course unit
Acquisition of the scientific expertise instrumental to the understanding of the taxonomic, morphological, physiological and antigenic characteristics of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses for the microscopic, cultural and serological diagnostic approach of infectious diseases in man and drug susceptibility testing to antimicrobial and antiviral drugs.
Course contents summary
Evolution of microorganisms and microbiology. The different branches of microbiology. Structural and functional characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Sporogenesis and germination. Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Microscopic examination. Simple and differential staining. Metabolism and cultivation: media and curve of growth. Quantitation methods. Classification. Bacterial genetics. Host-bacterium interactions. Resident bacterial population. Mechanisms of pathogenicity. Principal diseases caused by bacterial infections. Antibacterial drugs. Mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial drugs. Antibacterial drug susceptibility testing.
General features of fungi. Classification of fungi. Structure of fungal cell and colony. Yeasts and moulds. Fungal dimorphism. Fungal metabolism. Cultivation of fungi. Reproduction modalities in fungi. Mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. Immune response to fungal infections. Antifungal drugs. Mechanisms of resistance to antifungal drugs. Classification and epidemiology of mycoses. Fungi of clinical interest. Mycotoxins.
Introduction to medical parasitology: terminology and definitions used in the study of systematic medical parasitology, definition of parasitism, general features and classification of medically important parasites. Presentation of the principal parasitic protozoa of medical interest. Notes on the life cycle of principal blood and tissue parasitic protozoa: Leishmania, malaria Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii, free-living amebas (Acanthamoeba). Notes on the life cycle of the principal intestinal parasitic protozoa: intestinal amebas (Entamoeba histolytica), Flagellates (Giardia intestinalis), Coccidia (Cryptosporidium spp.). Notes on the life cycle of the principal genitourinary parasitic protozoa (Trichomonas). Presentation of the principal helmints of medical interest: Cestoda, Nematoda, Trematoda. Notes on the life cycle of the principal intestinal parasitic helmints: Cestoda (Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Echinococcus), Trematoda (schistosoma), Nematoda (Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis). Notes on the life cycle of the principal parasitic helmints of the muscoskeletal apparatus: Nematoda (Trichinella spiralis). Notes on the life cycle of the principal parasitic helmints of urinary apparatus: Trematoda (schistosoma). Presentation of the principal Arthropoda of medical interest: ticks, louses, maggots, mites.
General features of viruses. Definition of viruses. Morphology of viruses. Structure of viruses. Nucleic acids of viruses. Host-virus interactions: steps of viral infection. Expression of viral genome. Replication of viral genome. Cultivation of viruses. Effects of virus replication on host cell. Identification of viruses. Quantitation of viruses. Classification of viruses. Mutations and genetic interactions between viruses. Viral interference. Immunization against viruses. Antiviral drugs. Principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral infections.
M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano. Microbiologia Medica. Micologia. Batteriologia. Virologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azone patogena, laboratorio. Monduzzi Editore.
I. De Carneri. Parassitologia Generale ed Umana. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.