Learning outcomes of the course unit
Students have to know:
1. the morphology and structure of bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses, the physiology of bacteria/ fungi/ parasites and the replication of viruses
2. the classification of bacteria/fungi/parasites/viruses
3. the natural history of infections by bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses and their mechanisms of pathogenicity
4. the main defense mechanisms of the host against infections by bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses
5. the main mechanisms of action of drugs against bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses and the mechanisms of resistance to drugs6. the laboratory procedures to study the morphology and growth requirements of bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses, and their in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial and antiviral drugs.
Course contents summary
The evolutionary aspects of research in microbiology. Classification of the microbial world. Morphology and structure of bacterial cell. Chemical composition of the bacterial cell. Bacterial genetics. The bacterial metabolism. The microbial reproduction. The cultivation of bacteria. Antibacterial drugs: mechanisms of action and resistance, susceptibility testing. The microrganisms and the multicellular organisms. The resident microbiota of the body. Bacteria-host interactions. Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity and virulence. Invasiveness. Toxigenicity. Antigenic mimetism. Steps in the reduction shid between host and bacteria. Notes on modes of transmission of infectious diseases, sources of infection and epidemics influencing factors .
Morphology, cultivation, identification, mechanisms of pathogenicity, natural history of infections with reference to the following bacteria:
Staphylococcus (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus and other species); Streptococcus (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae); Enterococcus (S. faecalis, S. faecium and other species); Neisseria (N. meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae); Salmonella and other main Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Hafnia, Serratia, Proteus, Morganella, Providencia, Yersinia); Vibrio, Campylobacter; Brucella; Bordetella; Haemophilus; Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Listeria; Legionella; Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter; Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus; Bacillus anthracis.
Anaerobic bacteria: Streptococcus/ Peptostreptococcus; Bacteroi
Introduction to Medical Mycology. General features of fungi. Structure of the fungal cell and colony. Fungal metabolism. Modalities of fungal reproduction. Fungal dimorphism. Classification of fungi. Mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. Immune response to fungal infections. Host-parasite interactions in fungal infections. Pathogenesis of mycoses. Classification of mycoses. Epidemiology of mycoses. Antifungal drugs. Mycotoxins.
Yeasts. Moulds. Etiologic agents of superficial mycoses. Etiologic agents of (muco) cutaneous mycoses. Etiologic agents of subcutaneous mycoses. Etiologic agents of deep mycoses. Etiologic agents of paramycoses.
Parasitism, commensalism, mutualism. Infections and infestations. Host-parasite interactions. Prevalence of parasitic infections and infestations. Classification of medically important human parasitic Protozoa, Helmints and Arthropods.
Parasitic Protozoa of medical interest. Life cycle of most important blood and tissue parasitic protozoa: haemoflagellates (Leishmania, Trypanosoma); human malaria parasites; Toxoplasma gondii; free-living amebae (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria). Life cycle of most important intestinal and urogenital parasitic protozoa: host-associated amebae (Entamoeba histolytica); ciliate (Balantidium coli); coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Isospora); microsporidia; flagellates (Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis). Parasitic helminths of humans. Life cycle of most important blood and tissue parasitic helminths: cestodes (Echinococcus - hydatidosis; Taenia solium - cysticercosis); nematodes (Filaria, Trichinella, Toxocara); trematodes (Fasciola, Schistosoma).
Life cycle of most important intestinal parasitic helminths: cestodes (Diphyllobotrium latum, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium); nematodes (Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura).
Notes on most medical interest important parasitic arthropods of medical interest.
Notes on most important antiparasite drugs.
The beginnings of experimental virology. Definition of viruses. Characteristics of viruses. Nature of viruses. Theories on the origin of viruses. Morphology of viruses. Str
- M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano -
MICROBIOLOGIA MEDICA: BATTERIOLOGIA, MICOLOGIA, VIROLOGIA. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio. Monduzzi Editore
-I. De Carneri. Parassitologia Generale ed Umana. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
Oral and practical lesson
Assessment methods and criteria