Learning outcomes of the course unit
In depth knowledge of the etio-pathogenetic factors that underlie the alterations of structures and functions involved in human disease at molecular, cellular, and whole-organism levels. In depth knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the response to tissue injury at different levels of integration.
Course contents summary
Introductory concepts. Health and homeostasis. Deviations from homeostasis. The etiology of tissue injury at molecular level. Extrinsic causes of disease: Physical causes; Chemical causes; Biological causes. Intrinsic causes of disease: Single-gene disorders with classic and non classic inheritance; Multifactorial diseases; Cytogenetic disorders
Cellular pathology. Reversibile and irreversibile cell injury. Adaptive mechanisms to cell injury: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. The ischemic-hypoxic stress: Mechanisms; Metabolic consequences; Reperfusion injury; Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis
Oncology. Definitions, nomenclature, epidemiology. Tumor etiology: Chemical carcinogenesis; Radiation cancerogenesis; Heredity and tumors. The cell cycle: control mechanisms and their alterations. Stem cells and cancer. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Oncosuppressor genes and their products. Altered DNA repair mechanisms and tumors. Defects of apoptosis and cancer. Intiation and promotion. The neoplastic cell. Tumor progression. Tumor angiogenesis.
Pathophysiology of tissue injury and repair. The response to tissue injury. Hemostasis: Phases and mechanisms; Hemorrhagic diseases due do defects in primary or secondary hemostasis; Consumption coagulopathies. Thrombosis, embolism, infarction. Acute and chronic inflammation; Events, mechanisms, types and evolution of the inflammatory process; Chemical mediators of inflammation; Types of inflammatory lesions; Systemic effects of inflammation. Tissue repair and regeneration: Stem cells and tissue regeneration; Tissue repair and its alterations; Wound healing; Fibrosis. Atherosclerosis.
Metabolic disorders: Disorders of lipid metabolism; Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism: metabolic alterations in diabetes; Pathophysiology of blood and disorders of hemopoiesis.
The immune response. The Major Histocompatibility Complex; Innate immunity: Phagocitosis; Complement ativation. Specific Immunity: Cell-mediated Immunity; Humoral Immunity.
Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, Aster. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 8th Edition, Elsevier, 2009
Oral lesson - Audiovisual tutorials, empoyed during the lessons, will be provided to the students
Assessment methods and criteria