Learning outcomes of the course unit
-The knowledge of the mechanisms by which the human organism obtains and maintains the homeostasis at level of cell and tissue, the mechanisms of transport and communication and the basal metabolism.
-The knowledge of the functional mechanisms of the human body organs (and in particular of the mouth), the knowledge of their dynamic integration in apparatuses and the general mechanisms of functional control.
Course contents summary
General physiology. Mechanisms of passive permeability. Selective permeability. Simple diffusion. Facilitated diffusion. Active transport. Osmosis. Filtration. Electrochemical gradient. Nerst equation. Properties of cell channels. Action potential. Properties and mechanisms of gating of cell channels. Voltage-gated channels. Slow potential. Propagation of the slow potentials and of the action potentials.
Basic Physiology of the Nervous System. Functional properties of nerve fibers. Basic anatomy and functional properties of skeletal and smooth muscles. Synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters. Membrane receptors.
Physiology of the nervous system. Sensory organs. Energy transduction. The generator potential and the receptor potential. Cutaneous receptors and in particular mouth receptors. Functional anatomy of the somatosensory systems and in particular the mouth somatosensory system. Pain and the control mechanisms of pain especially of the mouth. The auditory system, the vestibular system and the taste system.The brain stem. Muscle spindles. Reflexes. Flexion and stretch reflexes. Reflexes of the mouth. Postural reflexes. The thalamus. Organization of the cerebral cortex. Somatosensory cortices. The parietal lobe. Posture and decerebrate rigidity. The cerebellum. The basal ganglia. Cerebellum and basal ganglia disorders. The motor cortex. The pyramidal system. Organization of premotor cortex.
Physiology of the autonomic nervous system and homeostasis. Functional anatomy of the autonomic nervous system: sympathetic, and parasympathetic systems. Functional anatomy of hypothalamus. Homeostasis. Body temperature and its regulation. Cold-blooded and homeothermic animals. Heat production and heat-loss mechanisms. Central mechanisms for temperature regulation. Hyperthermia and hypothermia.
Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract (GI). Motility of GI: chewing, swallowing, gastric and intestinal motility. Secretions of GI.
Cardiovascular apparatus. Physical principles of hemodynamics. Physical properties of blood. Miocardial properties: rhythm, conduction, excitability, contraction. Heart electrophysiology. Ionic theories of resting and action potentials. Heart mechanics and the cardiac cycle. Cardiac output. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of heart activity. The vascular system. Passive mechanical properties. Vascular smooth muscles. Nervous and endocrine regulation of blood vessels. Blood pressure; systolic, diastolic, mean and pulsatory.
Respiratory Apparatus. Alveolar and pulmunary ventilation. Lung volumes and capacities. Anatomic and functional dead space. Mechanics of breathing. Intra-pulmunary and intra-pleural pressures. Compliance. Pressure-volume curves. Airway resistance. Work of breathing. Inspirated air, alveolar air, and expirated air. Blood-tissue gas exchange in the lung: relationships between ventilation and alveolar pressures of gases. Distribution of ventilation. Gas exchange between alveoli and capillaries. Blood transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Pulmunary circulation. Ventilation-perfusion relationships. Respiratory centers: Genesis of the rhythm of respiration. Ventilation responses to variation in alveolar pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Chemical and central regulation of respiration. Hypoxia.
Berne & Levy. Fondamenti di Fisiologia. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Assessment methods and criteria