Learning outcomes of the course unit
Study of the morphological changes induced by diseases in organs, cells and molecules as a foundation for understanding etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis and therapy.
The student will learn the role of the discipline in modern clinical medicine and the diagnostic techniques and applications currently in use, including cytology, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology applied to human tissues and cells, and electron microscopy
The program includes the systematic analysis of the pathological basis of diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, skeletal muscle, head & neck region, female genital tract and pregnancy, breast, skin, bone and soft tissues, male uro-genital system, kidney, heart, lung, pleura, biliary tract and endocrine organs.
Course contents summary
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Edema, herniation, hydrocephalus, cerebral-vascular disease, regional and global hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral infarct, cerebral hemorrhage, epidural, subdural and subarachnoid hematoma.
Vascular malformations. Aneurysms. Congenital malformation and perinatal brain injury. Closure defects of the neural tube. Congenital hydrocephalus.
Infections: meningitis, viral and bacterial meningo-encephalitis, abscess, viral encephalitis, prion diseases.
Primary tumors: astrocytomas, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, PNET, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma, pineal tumors, CNS lymphomas, gangliocytoma, neurocytoma, meningiomas, metastases.
Degenerative diseases: Alzheimer’s disease, fronto-temporal dementia, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis.
Demyelinating diseases. Multiple sclerosis.
HEAD & NECK
ORAL CAVITY. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia, squamous cell carcinoma.
NASOPHARYNX & NASAL/PARANASAL CAVITIES. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, tumors of nasal/paranasal cavities.
SALIVARY GLANDS. Inflammatory disorders, litiasis, Sjogren’s syndrome. Salivary gland tumors: pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, muco-epidermoid carcinoma, adenoid-cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade pleomorphic carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, adenocarcinoma NOS.
LARYNX. Polyps, papilloma, papillomatois, carcinoma.
MYOCARDIUM. Ischemic heart disease, acute infarct and coronary syndromes, sudden cardiac death, acute and chronic cor pulmonare, hypertrophy, hypertensive cardiopathy, heart failure, cardiomyopathies and myocarditis.
HEART VALVES. Stenosis and insufficiency of mitral valve, stenosis and insufficiency of aortic valve, rheumatic fever, endocarditis.
GREAT VESSELS. Atherosclerosis, aneurysms, aortic dissection, arteritis.
LUNG. Acute alveolar damage, edema, embolism, infarct and hemorrhage, BPCO, pneumonitis, TBS, sarcoidosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pneumoconioses. Tumors: nomenclature and classificaton; squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, paraneoplastic syndromes, metastases.
PLEURA: pleuritis, pneumothorax, mesotelioma.
ENDOCRINE ORGANS. Thyroiditis, goiter, adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid, MEN syndromes, hyper-surrenalism, adrenal insufficiency, adrenocortical tumors, pheocromocytoma, paragangliomas.
AMYLOIDOSIS. Definition, classification and tissue lesions.
VULVA. Vulvar dystrophy, lichen sclerosus, squamous hyperplasia. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), carcinoma and variants; vulvar Paget’s disease,
CERVIX. Cervical intraepithelail neopalsa (CIN and SIL), squamous cell carcinoam and adenocaricnoma, variants, classification and staging.
ENDOMETRIUM. Adenomyosis, endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasai, polyps, adenocaricinoma, variants, grading and staging.
MYOMETRIUM. Leiomoyoma and variants, leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma.
OVARY: Functional cysts, epithelial ovarian tumors, variants, grading and staging germ cell tumors, tumors of the stroma and sex cords.
PLACENTA. Gestational trophoblastic disease: hydatiform mole, complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, trophoblastic tumor of the implantation site. Placental diseases: infections, twin gestations, placental malformations, vascular disorders.
BREAST. Infections, ductal ectasia, fibro-cystic changes, non prliferative, proliferative and atypical. Tumors: fibroadenoma, papilloma, filloid tumor, carcinoma insitu and invasive, variants, grading and staging. Male breast: gynecomastia and carcinoma.
KIDNEY: primary epithelial tumors, variants, grading and staging, pediatric tumors including Wilms tumor, angiomyolipoma, metastases.
URINARY TRACT: litiasis, inflammations, urothelial tumors and precancers, variants, grading and staging.
See specific Modules.
ROBBINS E COTRAN, LE BASI PATOLOGICHE DELLE MALATTIE, 8A ED. ELSEVIER
RUBIN'S PATHOLOGY: CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FOUNDATIONS OF MEDICINE, 6TH ED. LIPPINCOT
Assessment methods and criteria