OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE (INTERDISCIPLINARY COURSE)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To define the concepts of risk and risk factor for human health, to be able to identify the health risks at the workplace. To know the methods for the quantification of exposure of pollutants physical, chemical and biological discuss the meaning and use of environmental exposure limit values. To define the meaning of the main parameters for the characterization of the toxicity of chemicals and know the general principles of risk assessment. Interpret the meaning of the terms: dose, effect, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics. To define the meaning and knowledge of the use of biological indices of exposure. To assess the main biological indices of dose and effect and their modification by different occupational hazards. To understand the role of susceptibility 'in the individual chemical risk. To identify key occupational diseases or work-related, including neoplastic diseases. To know the basics of prevention of accidents and occupational diseases.
Course contents summary
Role of Occupational Health and its relationships with other medical and social services. Elements of work psychology. Risk factors and work activities: the concept of hazard and risk, risks associated with exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at the workplace. Risks to health and safety in the most common working activities, accidents at work and occupational diseases. Meaning of the main parameters for the characterization of the toxicity of chemicals (LD50, ADI, NOEL, etc..) and general principles of risk assessment. Methodology of prevention of occupational risks: hazard identification, exposure assessment, meaning and use of environmental exposure limits values (MAC TLV). The concepts of dose, effect, toxicokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) toxicodynamics (tissue / target organ, metabolic activation, mechanism of action, latency period) of industrial pollutants. Role of individual susceptibility in chemical risk. Meaning and use of Biological Exposure Indices (BEI, internal dose, etc.). Mechanism of action and effects of the following toxic substances: solvents (aliphatic, aromatic, chlorinated), metals and metalloids (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, lead), pesticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, pyrethroids). Acute and chronic poisoning by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Mn). Mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and identification of the main occupational cancers. Mechanisms of neurotoxicity and main toxic neuropathies (central and peripheral). Illness and work-related illness at work, and the role of working conditions in the genesis of common diseases such as pulmonary, osteoarthropathies, heart disease. Organ diseases: (i) respiratory tract: allergic asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumoconiosis, (ii) nephropathy, (iii) liver (direct and immunotoxic), (iv) blood dyscrasias (v) osteoarthropathies. Industrial noise and hearing loss; characteristics of hearing loss from noise. Control of the state of health of workers: health surveillance. The periodic preventive health assessments. The occupational history.
Testi consigliati: V. Foa', L. Ambrosi. MEDICINA DEL LAVORO 2003, UTET
Assessment methods and criteria